Phylogenetic characterization and antifungal activity of recombinant defensin protein from Triticum aestivum

Laith A.H AlObaidi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 232-244

Defensins protein plays an important role in innate immune defense against infectious diseases in animals and plants. In our study and for the first time, common wheat (Triticum aestivum) defensin gene was fully characterized. The protein encodes from a signal peptide region of 25 amino acids. Homology searches showed that T. aestivum defensin have a highest identity (72-64 %) with other defensin selected sequences. A multiple sequence alignment indicates very well highly conserved regions include eight cystiene residues, α-helix, loop, and β-sheet. A phylogenetic analysis of the T. aestivum defensin gene sequence among other plant defensin sequences further confirmed that the T. aestivum sequence is very closely related to Triticum durum defensin sequences, and thus, is likely to have the same expressed structure and function. Moreover, the recombinant defensin protein was expressed in vitro and it show a strong antifungal activity against pathogenic strain Puccinia striiformis. Our study indicate that recombinant defensin protein may be a powerful tool for common wheat treatment.

IMMUNOLOGICAL PROFILE IN DIFFERENT GROUPS OF END STAGE RENAL DISEASE

Madha Mohammed Sheet Saleh; Zahraa Ali Ahme

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 245-252

Background and aim of study: End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is a worldwide problem in which patients are in hemo-dialysis and/or awaiting for kidney transplantation. However, the actual mechanism (s) of ESRD pathogenesis is ill-defined. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of certain immunological markers in the pathogenesis of ESRD.
Materials and methods: Sixty eight blood samples were collected from hospitalized ESRD patients with different etiology (hypertensive, diabetics, hypertensive + diabetics, and small size kidney). Twenty healthy volunteers as control group was enrolled in the study. Serum IL-10, IL-17, MCP-1 and TGF-β were estimated in all subjects.
Result: A significant elevation in the serum IL-10, MCP-1 and IL-17 mean concentration in all ESRD patients groups. TGF-β mean concentration exhibited decreasing level in the hypertensive, hypertensive + diabetes and small size kidney groups and a slight elevation in the diabetes group. The IL-10: IL-17 ratio expressed elevation in all ESRD patients groups.
Conclusion: There is a progress of inflammatory reactions in all ESRD patients groups in which IL-17 and MCP-1 are playing major roles. TGF-β1 is not played its anticipated pro-fibrotic role and anti-inflammatory function in the studied group. The ratio of IL-10: IL-17 point out a slight shifting of the immunosuppressive reaction over the inflammatory reaction in all ESRD patients groups.

The Antibacterial effect of extracts of Salvadora Perscia against oral pathogenic bacteria isolated from dental caries

Nihad Khalawe Tektook

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 253-263

background and aims: Most pathogenic bacteria became resistance to antibiotic which leads to failure in treatment of bacterial infections by antibiotics , wherefore in the recent time go toward the medical alternative treatment of bacterial infections, therefore this present investigation aimed to evaluated efficient of extract of Salvadora Perscia (miswak) as antibacterial (an alternate to antibiotics)against six bacterial species: Staphylococcus.aureus , Staphylococcus.faecalis, Staphylococcus.mutans, Staphylococcus.pyogenes (Group A streptococcus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) isolated from dental caries with study the antibiotic resistant to these bacterial isolate and comparative between them.

Method: in this study using aqueous and methanol extract of Salvadora persica against bacterial isolates from dental caries after diagnostic bacteria by culturing on media (macConkey and blood) agar, classical methods and Vitek system with study the antibiotic resistant pattern to these bacterial isolate by disc agar diffusion.

Results: This investigated founded that aqueous extracts of Salvadora persica was high activity at (10000µg/ ml) against all tested bacteria while weakest activity at ( 500µg/ ml ) on Staphylococcus.aureus , Staphylococcus. faecalis and Escherichia coli (Inhibition Zone (I.Z) =6.5 and 8) mm respectively, whilst methanol extracts of Salvadora persica strong activity at (10000µg/ ml) against Pseudomonas.aeruginosa, streptococcus.mutans as well as both Escherichia coli and streptococcus. pyogenes (Group A streptococcus)( I.Z =17, 16 and 15 ) mm respectively, followed by Staphylococcus.Pyogenen in both concentration (5000, 1000µg/ ml) (I.Z =12 mm) and weaker activity in (500µg/ ml) against Staphylococcus.faecalis and Staphylococcus.aureus (I.Z =4, 6) mm respectively , whilst antibiotics sensitivity study showed streptococcus.faecalis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin,Gentamycin , Norfloxacin and Streptomycin (I.Z =18,17,18,15) mm respectively and this bacteria appearance resistance for both Amoxicillin and Chloramphenicol ( I.Z= 7mm) as well as some of isolates as staphylococcus.aureus and Pseudomonas.aeruginosa were resistant to both Chloramphenicol and Gentamycin (I.Z = 5.5)mm respectively whilst streptococcus.pyogenes (Group A streptococcus), streptococcus.mutans and Escherichia coli were sensitivity to Chloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin as (22, 20 and 21) mm respectively.

Conclusion: Salvadora persica can be used as antibacterial.

Study of antioxidant effect of Curcuma longa L. phenolic extract, sodium selenite and vit. E on some physiological and biochemical criteria of white male rats treated with chromium picolinate

Haider salih jaffat; Afyaa sabah nasir

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 264-277

وقد تم تصميم هذه الدراسة لتحديد تأثيرات مضادة للأكسدة من مستخلص الفينولية من كركم لونغا L.، سيلينات الصوديوم وفيتامين E ضد الاكسدة الناجمة عن بيكوليناتي الكروم في بعض المعايير الفسيولوجية والبيوكيميائية للدم وبعض المواد المضادة للاكسدة والناقلات العصبية في الدماغ على الفئران الذكور البالغين.
  وقد أجريت الدراسة في المنزل الحيوان من كلية العلوم / جامعة الكوفة في 70 الحيوانات من الفئران الذكور البالغين الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 2.5-3 أشهر والوزن من 200-250 جرام. أظهرت النتائج عدم وجود تغير معنوي (p> 0.05) في متوسط ​​وزن الجسم، والجسم الجهاز الوزن والكبد الانزيمات في الفئران تعامل مع الكروم بيكوليناتي فقط للفترتين من التجربة وكذلك نفس النتائج المسجلة في الحيوانات المعالجة مع بيكوليناتي الكروم مع فيتامين E وسيلينات الصوديوم وبيكوليناتي الكروم مع استخراج الفينول من كركم لونغا لمدة ستة وثمانية أسابيع مقارنة مع مجموعة التحكم. كما لوحظ انخفاض معنوي (p <0.05) في المواد المضادة للاكسدة وتشمل الفائق، الجلوتاثيون بيروكسيديز وزيادة كبيرة (ف <0.05) في malondialdehyde في الحيوانات تعامل مع الكروم بيكوليناتي لمدة تتراوح من ساعتين من الإدارة مقارنة بالكنترول المجموعة أيضا إلى انخفاض معنوي (p <0.05) في الدوبامين (DA)، وزيادة كبيرة (ف <0.05) على مادة السيروتونين (5-HT) في الحيوانات تعامل مع الكروم بيكوليناتي فقط في مقارنة مع مجموعة التحكم. وعلاوة على ذلك، وقعت زيادة كبيرة (ف <0.05) في الفائق والبيروكسيديز الجلوتاثيون مستويات مضادات الأكسدة الفائق وانخفاض معنوي (p <0.05) في مستوى malondialdehyde في الحيوانات المعالجة بواسطة بيكوليناتي الكروم بشكل منفصل مع استخراج الفينول من كركم لونغا والكروم بيكوليناتي مع فيتامين E وسيلينات الصوديوم مقارنة مع مجموعة التحكم وأظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية (P <0.05) في الدوبامين (DA) وانخفاض معنوي (p <0.05) في مادة السيروتونين (5-HT) في الفئات المذكورة أعلاه ل فترات من ستة وثمانية أسابيع مقارنة مع مجموعة التحكم.
   تختتم الدراسة من أن استخراج الفينول من كركم لونغا، سيلينات الصوديوم وفيتامين E ومضادات الأكسدة الفعالة ضد الاكسدة الناجمة عن تناوله عن طريق الفم من بيكوليناتي الكروم أدى إلى تحسين المعايير المذكورة أعلاه درس، مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة وسجلت أفضل النتائج بعد العلاج عن طريق استخراج الفينول من كركم لونغا.

Investigation of Norovirus among diarrheal children in Al- Najaf Provence

Ahmed jassim Shwalla Al-khoweledy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1-6

One hundred diarrheal stool samples were collected from infants with age (1-18 months) admitted to Al-ZahraaHospital for Maternity and Children& Al- Hakeem hospital in AL- Najaf governorate , Iraq , during the period extended from December 2014 to March 2015. All samples were subjected to rapid test specific of Norovirus . The results of rapid identification revealed that 29% (29/100) were positive for Norovirus ,eleven samples (37.9% ) of 29 stool samples was detected RT.PCR technique. Most patients were those who had mixed feeding methods using untreated water and lived in poor environmental conditions.

Study of some physiological parameters in patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)

Ali H. Al-Saadi; Haider K. Zaidan; Rafie S. Al-Khafaji

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 7-16

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common Mendelian disorder of the kidney and affects all racial groups worldwide. It is characterized by focal development of renal and extrarenal cysts in an age-dependent manner. This study tested some physiological parameters in two groups of patients with ADPKD, the first group included patients with kidney failure and the second group included patients without renal failure as well as the control group. The study showed an increase in urea and uric acid in the serum of the patients without renal failure compared with the control levels and were higher in the patients with renal failure compared with the patients without renal failure, which amounted to 115.8 mg / dL and 10,278 mg / dL and 22.45 mg / dL and 7,264 mg / dL and 11.03 mg / dL and 3,264 mg /dL respectively. Creatinine serum level was higher in the patients with renal failure compared with the patients without renal failure and control, reaching 3.5 mg / dL , compared with 1,026 mg / dL and 0986 mg / dL , respectively. Potassium ion level was higher in patients without renal failure than in control reaching 4,179 mmol / L and 2.34 mmol / L, respectively, while the level was higher in patients with renal failure than in patients without renal failure where it reached 7.09 mmol / l. Sodium ion levels were low in the patients with renal failure and the patients without renal failure than in the control group, reaching 87.06 mmol / l and 129 843 mmol / l and 147.25 mmol / L, respectively. The level of sodium ion was lower in the patients with renal failure than in the patients without renal failure. Results of the study showed normal levels in serum albumin and liver enzymes, AST and ALT.

Histopathological study of colorectal cancer in AL – Najaf province

Wajedan K. Noor

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 17-26

The present study was carried out in AL – Sadder education hospital – AL – Najaf province of histopathological Lab. ( 100 ) patients were examined, ( 31 ) patients were infected with colon cancer, the age of patients ranged between ( 25 – 84 ) years old. This work was involved The relationship between colon cancer and many factors such as gander, age, smoking, and blood groups, and also histopathological description. our study was revealed, the colon cancer was affected the age ranged between ( 60-64 ) at percent ( 19.4% ) and more these age ,and patients had blood groups (O+) and (B+) were more than other blood groups, the blood group (O+) patients with colon cancer at percent ( 41.9% ) and blood group (B+) at percent ( 29% ). Our finding not appears any effect of smoking, and gender factors on the prevalence of colon cancer, Histopathological studying was revealed, damage in epithelial lining of colon mucosa, hemorrhage, hyperplasia in the intestinal glands structures and connective tissue that found in sub mucosa of colon as well as polymorphic leucocytic infiltration, especially lymphocytes, and increased in the goblet cells component in the mucosa of colon.

Physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of some drinking water samples in Karbala city, Iraq

Wafaa S. Al-Wazni; Hassan J. Al - Fatlawy; Hdeel hameed

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 27-37

Although the water is one of the most important component upon the survival and continuation of the life , it is one of the main means that responsible for the spread of many disease , so it is important to the rely physiochemical and bacteriological analysis to determine the validity of the drinking water for human consumption and in order to ascertain the drinking water quality in Karbala , Iraq , samples of drinking water were collected from ten different stations to determine several parameters which were chosen as the major indicator such as temperatures (T )(17-27), PH (7-7.5) , Electrical conductivity (E.C) (1110-1289), Salinity (S)(0.68-0.73) , Calcium (Ca)(46-68), Magnesium (Mg)(62-37), Total hardness (TH)(280-364), Free chloride (FC)( o.oo-o.oo4) Dissolved oxygen (DO)(6.4-7.7) and biological oxygen demands (BOD)(2.5-0.9). In all water samples were found that the T, pH, Ca, DO and BOD were acceptable to the standard value of the WHO. While these samples recorded high levels of S, Mg, TH and EC in comparison with WHO acceptable values.
The microbiological analysis showed the state of higher contamination of drinking water with total coliform (0-5/100Ml) and feel coliform (0-3/ 100 ml). The pollution of drinking water with these harmful bacteria, indicates the clear correlation between the level of pollution and many dangerous health problems.

Dexamethasone abuse for weight gain in Al- Najaf District/ Iraq

Bushra Abdul Raheem Farhan

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 38-42

The objective of this study is to recognize the prevalence and attitude for abusing Dexamethasone DX tablets for weight gain in Najaf, Iraq. Three hundred and twenty patients were included in the questionnaire; 202 were excluded who had asthma, allergic diseases, and rheumatoid arithritis, and 118 (36.9%) were abusing DX for weight gain. DX abuser percentage 91 (77%) was in the age range 16 -25 for both males and females, while 27 (23%) was in the age range 26 – 35; female represent 69 (58.5% ) of the DX abusers in comparison to male 49 ( 41.5%), which was significant on the level P < 0.05. The highest percentage of DX abusers 40.678% was in the 21-25 age range for both males and females, while the lowest percentage 4.237% was in the 31-35 year age range. Eighty two ( 69.492% ) got the drug without prescription from pharmacies or drug venders, and were advised by friends or their families to use DX for weight gain. Seventy six (64.407%) ceased DX intake after reaching the desired weight where the mean duration of DX use was years, 43 (56.6%) of them returned to drug intake after the stopping period of months. Thirty (25.4%) of the abusers have some knowledge about some DX side effects.

Isolation and Quantitative determination of proteins from fish scales of Cyprinus carpio L. and Liza albue In saltwater and freshwater

Jinan Mohammed AL-Zahid; Intisar Razaaq Sharba

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 43-51

This study was conducted in the laboratories of the Faculty of Science - University of Kufa in) 2014- 2015) Included extraction and isolation of deferent type of proteins from the scales of fish carps Cyprinus carpio and Khushani liza albue in salt and freshwater environments and used in the experiment peels dorsal origin. Continuously drawn to peel the fish using a systematic solution) 50 m M Tris-HCl, pH 7.5)Concentration of 1M of non-protein compounds associated proteins was isolated using central ostracism and deposition of proteins from the organizer of the solution using different concentrations of ammonium sulfate(NH4) 2SO4).
The results show the presence of different protein compounds was deposited from the scale of qualitative studied fish through the use of different saturation concentrations of ammonium sulfate and achieve different and isolate the protein compounds residual saturation ratios by sulfates were classified according to the proportion saturation of Almaah gratification was quantification using a spectrophotometer deviceUV- Spectrophotometer at wavelength of 250 nm . The results show through the different types and amount of proteins in different species and studied the different growth environment.

Relationship of Salivary & Plasma Troponin Levels of Patients with AMI in Merjan medical city of Babylon Province: Cross-Sectional Clinical Study

Hayder Abdul- Amir Maki Al-hindi; Shukry Faez Al-Saad; Basim MH Zwain; Thekra Abid Al-Kashwan Jaber

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 53-58

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a disorder that could be a reason for morbidity & mortality. Effective & early identification is crucial for management. One analytical technique for the diagnosis of MI is evaluating plasma troponin (Tn) values. Bearing in mind the problems of blood aspiration from patients, a noninvasive practice like measuring of saliva Tn can be used as an alternative way. The present works aims to inspect variations in plasma & salivary Troponin I (TnI) measurements in AMI patients.
Methods: The study involved 100 patients diagnosed as AMI by physicians. After obtaining their agreement, both salivary & plasma TnI levels was assessed by saliva & blood sampling consequently by means of; VIDUS® techniques and kits.
Results: The mean age of patients was 56.5years and 79% of patients were male. There was week positive correlation between blood and serum troponin levels (r=0.1, P<0.05). The mean troponin level in serum was 8.07ng/L and troponin level in salvia was 0.16 ng/L showing a steady increase in saliva and blood during the process of AMI. There was no significant correlation of both serum & salivary TnI with increasing age or with gender differences.
Conclusion: There was week positive significant correlation between S TnI & Sal TnI concentrations showing a steady increase in saliva and blood during the process of AMI.

The Effect of Spraying Ascorbic and Humic acid on Growth Parameters and Yield of Okra Plant ( Abelmoschus esculentus L . Moench.)

Manssoor Abed Aboohanah

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 59-68

Field experiment was conducted in a farm of Najaf governorate during 2013-2014 season , to study the effect of different concentrations of ascorbic acid and humic acid on the growth and productivity of okra plant cv. Betra . The experiment included 9 treatments i.e. the interaction of three concentrations of ascorbic acid ( 0 , 50 and 100 mg.L-1 ) and three concentrations of humic acid ( 0 , 1.5 and 3 ml.L-1 ) spraying were applied twice during growth season at fifteen days interval.
Factorials experiment within Randomized complete Block Design ( R.C.B.D ) was used with three replications , Means were compared according to least significant difference L.S.D test at probability of 0.05 . Results can be summarized as follow:
The use of concentration 100 mg. L-1 of ascorbic acid had a significant effect on all vegetative growth parameters ( plant length , leaves number , branches number, stem diameter , shoot fresh and dry weights) compared with control treatment ( sprays with distilled water ) which gave the least means values .
Humic acid spraying with 3 ml. L-1 had a significant effect on all vegetative growth parameters compared with control treatment . Interaction between the two factors gave a significant effect on all vegetative growth .100 mg.L-1 of ascorbic acid had a significant effect on all root growth parameters ( root length , main roots number , root fresh and dry weights) compared with control treatment which gave the least means .Humic acid spraying with conc. 3 ml.L-1 had a significant effect on all root growth parameters compared with control treatment .
The use of 100 mg.L-1 ascorbic acid had a significant effect on some chemical charcterstictis and yield (total chlorophyll content in leaves, total soluble carbohydrate content in leaves and yield of plant) compared with control treatment which gave the least means. Humic acid spraying with conc. 3 ml. L-1 had a significant effect on some chemical characteristics and yield of plant compared with control treatment which gave the least values. Interaction between both factors showed significant effect on some chemical characteristics and yield of plant.

Synthesis , characterization and study biological activity of some new five heterocyclic derivatives for β-D-Fructopyranose

Ezzat H. Zimam

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 69-81

This research involves the synthesis of some new 1,2,3-Traizoliene and 1,2,3,4-Tetrazole derivatives. Firstly was converted 2-aminpyridine to thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-amine (A) by reacting with ammonium thiocyanate in presence of glacial acetic acid. Then, compound (B) was prepared from the reaction of (A)with p-acetamido benzenesulphonyl chloride in basic medium. Hydrolysis of compound (B) in glacial acetic acid gives compound (C).Shiff bases (1-5) were prepared by reaction of (C) with aromatic aldehydes . Compound (D) was synthesized from reaction of compound (C) with acetic anhydride in presence of Conc. H2SO4 . Chalcone derivatives (6-10) were prepared from reaction compound (D) with aromatic aldehyde. Finally To achieve this work , Methyl- D- fructpyranoside (E) was synthesized by treating D-Fructose with Methanol in acidic medium under thermodynamically controlled conditions to make sure that the fructopyranoside are the predominant product. The hydroxyl group on C1 was converted into mesylester derivatives (F) by reaction (E) with one equivalent of mesylchloride at 0Co
The vital compound in this synthesis compound (G) was obtained by treatment (F) with one mole of sodium azide in presence of TBAB. Reaction (G)with Schiff bases gives1,2,3,4-Tetrazole derivatives ( 11-15 ),while reaction with unsaturated compound formed 1,2,3-Traizoliene derivatives (16-20) . The synthesized compounds have been measured by their melting points, and characterized by C.H.N. analysis, FT-IR and 1H-MNR spectroscopy.

Immunological study in patients with chronic giardiasis

Faheim M. Al. Shebly; Shaimaa A. Shlash

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 82-85

Conducted this study to determine effect Giardia lamblia infection from measurement levels of immunoglobulin A, G, M and E among males in Al-Najaf governate, where use 66 patients and 30 healthy as control groups which visited Al-Hakeem Hospital and Al-Sadder medical city in Al-Najaf governate during the period from January till August 2015. Infection with this parasite diagnosis by using the wet amount microscope for stool from patients. The results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in immunoglobulin A, G, and M in G.lamblia infection patients in compared to healthy group , While the results showed immunoglobulin E was normal in G.lamblia infection patients in compared to healthy group.

Detection of anti-HCV IgG antibodies in thalassemic patients by Enzyme Linked immunosorbant assay in AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf Provence

Nadia Habib Sarhan Al-Shabany; Dr.Musa Nima Mezher AL-Jaifry; Dr.Jameel Gerry Yousif

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 233-238

The present study was designed to investigate viral Hepatitis C infections in thalassemic patients by detection anti-HCV IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked immunosorbent assay.
Sixty nine blood serum were collected from thalassemic patients in AL-Zahra'a hospital in Al-Najaf Provence .The study period was from 1 November (2014) to 28 April (2015).
The result of this study showed that 25(36%) samples of thalassemic patients were anti-HCV IgG antibodies positive result, 16 are male and 9 are female ,their age range from (4-43) years ,while 44(64%) samples of thalassemic patients anti-HCV IgG antibodies negative result , 22 are male and 22 are female, their age range from (3-35) years .Twenty one individuals without any signs or symptoms of disease were selected as normal healthy control groups including (13) female and (8) males.
The result showed that 25samples are seropositive to anti-HCV IgG in all age groups and the age group (10-20) years old has ahighest percentage than other age groups .

Estimation of the movement rate of insecticides three types in different soils.

M. S. Barbosh

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 348-355

Present study was carried out in laboratory for estimating movement of three insecticides (Dursban,Karate,DDVP) in three textural different soils there could be reach to ground water and contaminated it.The insecticides motion had been proved via hydraulic conductivity property basis on liquid and soil features .However the soil samples brought from three locations which were (najaf city ,kufa city,alzarka village ) there classified as :
1th orthids; 2th, 3th torifluvents) respectively. Meanwhile soil columns prepared in three replicates to each soil. Then hydraulic conductivity measured with (head constant method)to sandy soil , (variable charge method)to others Dunnett's method to compare of means there were showed in results as:
1- DDVP 2.915 (cm.minut-1)> Karate 2.443 (cm.minut-1) > 1.394 Dursban (cm.minut-1) through sandy soil.
2- Karate 2.801(cm.minut-1) > DDVP1.442 (cm.minut-1)> 1.207 (cm.minut-1) Dursban through loamy soil.
3_ DDVP 0.386 (cm.minut-1)> Karate 0.305 (cm.minut-1) > 0.702 (cm.minut-1) Dursban through clay soil.
The point is that DDVP, Karate can access to the ground water in sandy ,loamy soils than Dursban but all of those cannot access it in clay soil.
Conclusion
*Using these insecticides is more suitable with heavy soil from soil and water management concept.
** There was no risky of Dursban apply as chemical chlorpyrifos group under recommended doses from plant protection side.
***Relying on first order equation as kinetic way discovered how much is insecticidal resides on soil surface with no additional do.

Molecular Study of Quinolone Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii Isolates

Nabil S.S. Tuwaij

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 300-312

A total of 97 burns swab collected from patients treated in burns unit of Al-Sader Hospital, Al-Najaf Province, during the period five months (1/6/2014 to 1/11/2014). Only 75/97(77.31%) were positive bacterial culture on MacConkey agar medium compared with 22/97(22.68%) specimens gave negative bacterial growth. The results of microscopic, morphology culture, biochemical test and Vitek-2 system revealed that 23/75(30.66%) isolates, were obtained as following 21/75(28%) Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp pneumoniae and 2/75(2.66%) Citrobacter freundii were recovered from 75 positive specimens obtained aseptically from admitted patients in the burn unit. Out of these, 15/23 (65.21%) were isolated from female patients and 8/23 (34.78 %) from male patients.
Antimicrobial susceptibility were done using disk diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) strip test. Results showed high degree resistance to most antibiotic under study and all tested isolates were at least resistant to three or more of antibiotic classes and then consider as multidrug resistant isolates (MDR) , At same time, ertapenem revealed maximum effectiveness against K. pneumoniae and C. freundii isolates with resistance rate reached to (28.57%) and (0%) respectively. While cloxacillin, oxacillin, and carbenicillin were offered less effective among antibiotic through resistance 100%. 14(66.66%) of K. pneumoniae isolates gave high level of resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin with MIC ≥ 256 µg/ml and MIC ≥32 µg/ml respectively compared with 1(50%) in C. freundii isolates and these were considered as highly resistance. The PCR data showed that aac(6’)-Ib –cr gene high prevalence 15(71.42%) in K. pneumoniae isolates compared to 1(50%) in C. freundii no.2. Also qnr B gene was positive in 10(47.61%) K. pneumoniae, while only 1 (50%) of C. freundii isolates was harbored qnr B gene. While qnr, qnr C and qnr D genes did not detect in this study.

The study of Oxidative stress, Sperm chromatin abnormality and seminal parameters in different groups for infertile patients

Mohsin K. AL-Murshdi; Yehya K. AL-Sultani

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 425-433

The study was carried out between January 2014 and October 2014 including one hundred and fifty five infertile men who attended the Fertility center in AL-Sadr Medical City. The Objective of this study was to study of oxidative stress, sperm chromatin abnormality and semen quality including ( semen volume, Liquefaction time, sperm concentration, motility, and normal morphology. The results of the study showed that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the semen volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology for unexplained compared to five abnormal semen groups. Also it was a significantly decrease (p<0.05) in liquefaction time, leukocyte concentration, MDA concentration and sperm chromatin abnormality for unexplained compared with abnormal semen groups. This study supports the conclusion that oxidative stress in seminal plasma is the main causes of sperm chromatin defect with defect of semen parameters and related with male infertility.

Phylogenetic characterization and antifungal activity of recombinant defensin protein from Triticum aestivum

Laith A.H AlObaidi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 462-473

Defensins protein plays an important role in innate immune defense against infectious diseases in animals and plants. In our study and for the first time, common wheat (Triticum aestivum) defensin gene was fully characterized. The protein encodes from a signal peptide region of 25 amino acids. Homology searches showed that T. aestivum defensin have a highest identity (72-64 %) with other defensin selected sequences. A multiple sequence alignment indicates very well highly conserved regions include eight cystiene residues, α-helix, loop, and β-sheet. A phylogenetic analysis of the T. aestivum defensin gene sequence among other plant defensin sequences further confirmed that the T. aestivum sequence is very closely related to Triticum durum defensin sequences, and thus, is likely to have the same expressed structure and function. Moreover, the recombinant defensin protein was expressed in vitro and it show a strong antifungal activity against pathogenic strain Puccinia striiformis. Our study indicate that recombinant defensin protein may be a powerful tool for common wheat treatment.

Some Epidemiological Aspects of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iraq

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 449-455

The study was carried out during the period from September 2012 to August 2013 in fifteen Iraqi provinces. A rapid test kit for detection of specific antibody of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) to a recombinant antigen (rk39) in serum was used. The results revealed that 3267 children infected with VL. Geographical distribution showed that the disease was more prevalent in the southern and middle parts of Iraq. Thiqar was found to be the main endemic province 739 (22.6%), low prevalence was noted in Nenawa 3 (0.09%). The high percentage of infected appeared in February 2013 was 592(18.1%), while the low one appeared in August 2013 was 75(2.3%). The age among positive cases ranged between three months and 15 years .About half (54.4%) of detected cases at 1-4 years of age, and the proportion decreased as age increased. The main proportion of males who were infected was higher than female (55% versus 45%), this differences, however, is not statistically significant at (p<0.05).

The effect of Iron overload on PCV, hemoglobin & serum ferritin of thalassaemia major male patients

Sara Mossa M. Marbut; Moafaq Mutlak Zeidan

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 444-448

Red blood Corpuscle transfusion therapy as supportive care for Thalassemic patients is the principal cause of iron overload in patients with especially in β-thalassaemia. As each unit of transfused packed red Corpuscles contains approximately 200-250 mg of iron, patients who are administered regular transfusions can receive a daily iron excess of up to 0.5mg/kg. The complications that occur with β-thalassaemia major are Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Complication of β-thalassaemia major include: Delayed Puberty, arrested puberty and hypogonadism. Delayed puberty is defined as the absence of any pubertal sign in boys (testicular enlargement) by the age of 13 years. The aims of this study are to find out the serum concentration of hemoglobin & PCV, also to see the effect of iron overload as reflected by serum ferritin on blood parameters of male thalassaemia major. Patients & methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on β-thalassaemia major patients whom attended the thalassaemia center in Azadi Teaching Hospital from December 2013 to March 2014. Sixty six male aged (12-16 years) patients were attending thalassaemia center for routine blood transfusion. Twenty nine male subjects apparently healthy, with no family history of hereditary blood disease attendants to out-patient pediatric clinic. All thalassaemic patients included in this study were previously diagnosed as β-thalassaemia major based on the usual hematological criteria (peripheral blood evaluation and haemoglobin electrophoresis) in addition to the family history and transfusion dependence. Venous blood samples were taken from all patients & controls males for hematological & biochemical analysis. Result: There was a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in body weight & body height of thalassaemic male patients as compare with control male subjects. There were a highly significant decrease (p <0.001) in PCV & the concentration of heamoglobin (Hb) of thalassaemic male patients as compared with control male subjects. Moreover, there is significant increase in serum ferritin in male Thalassemic patients as compare with normal healthy males of same age.

Frequency of IgM & IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Cytomegalovirus and Rubella virus in serum specimens from aborted women in North Baghdad-Al-Tarmiya region.

Ammer Abdulhamid Mohammed

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 138-143

Background: Prenatal screening for evaluation the frequency of IgM & IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections is an important test in this work. The acute infections which are caused by Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy often associated with adverse fetal outcomes and reproductive failures.
Toxoplasma, Rubella and CMV are known to cause infection in uterus and are often responsible for abortion, stillbirth, premature delivery and congenital malformation. Detection and timely treatment of such infections can prevent morbidity and mortality of the infants born to such mothers.
Objective : The present study was undertaken to screening and evaluation the frequency of IgM & IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Rubella virus infections in blood samples collected from aborted women lived in North Baghdad Al-Tarmiya region.
Materials and Methods: Sera were collected from aborted women and they were tested for the presence of specific IgM& IgG antibodies against the Toxoplasma gondii, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Rubella virus infections by ELISA. This study was performed in North Baghdad Al-Tarmiya region from the period of April /2013 to July/2013.
Results: It was shown (table-2) that the highest frequency of specific IgM and IgG anti- Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus antibodies was recorded in the age group between 19 to 45 years, 78% and 28%, respectively. According to abortion frequency, IgM was recorded the highest frequency (63.26%) in the Toxoplasma infections, followed by IgM anti-CMV infections was(18.4%) and then IgM anti-Rubella infections was (5.1%) as explain in (table-3). The present study revealed that the highest frequency of IgM & IgG anti-under research infections antibodies was detected in the first trimester of pregnancy as explain in (table-4).
Conclusions:
It was concluded that seropositivity of IgM anti- Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus antibodies was higher than that observed with IgG in blood samples collected from aborted women lived in North Baghdad-Al-Tarmiya region.
Recommendations:
A large size of sample is recommended to be studied to confirm the results of this study. All the antenatal cases should be routinely screened to detection Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), Rubella virus and Cytomegalovirus infections, for early treatment to prevent fetal loss.

Evaluation the interplay of T-helper 22 and T-helper17 in patients with breast cancer

Dina M.R. Alkhaf; Raghda S. M. AlOmari; Ziad M. Alkhozai

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 273-283

The interplay between Th-17 and Th-22 cells plays vital role in tumor immunity . Therefore, this study aimed to focus on these cells in patients with breast cancer. The results of this study showed that there were a highly significant increment in concentrations of IL-17A(139.5±17pg/ml) compared with control group which was (41.33±11.3pg/ml) and showed results were a highly significant elevation in concentration of IL-23P19 (192.73±22.3pg/ml) while control group was (121.41±14.7pg/ml). Also The results showed a highly significant increment in concentration of IL-22 (137.25±24.6pg/ml) compared to control group which was (77.67±13.7pg/ml) and also in TNF-α concentration was (200±23.7pg/ml) compared with control group which was (10.5±7.3pg/ml). Molecular findings recorded a significant elevation in the levels of AP-1 gene expression were Fos 18.76±7.8 in patients group and 9.05±1.12 control group, also the values of JunD gene 15.77±9.43 and 6.18±0.112, and lastly JunB 23.223±11.34 in comparison to control group7.33±3.76.Overall findings revealed considerable inflammatory response by Th-17 and Th-22 and remarkable AP-1 gene expression.

Comparison between some inflammatory biomarkers including ICAM-1, IL-6 and CRP in preeclamptic women in different gestational ages

Ihsan Mohammed A. Ajeena; Muhannad Yahya I. Al-Muhanna

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 503-514

Background: Preeclampsia is a disease of pregnancy characterized by a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more on two separate occasions after the 20th gestational week in a previously normotensive woman. This is accompanied by significant proteinuria (>300 mg in 24 hours) and is associated with endothelial cell damage. The markers of endothelial activation or inflammation have been blamed to play an active role in preeclampsia.
Subjects and materials and methods: This study included 97 pregnant with a confirmed diagnosis of preeclampsia as a patient group and 72 control pregnant women, with a gestational age ranging between 20-38 weeks. They are divided into three subgroups according to their gestational age (20-26 wk, 27-32 wk and 33-38 wk) and the mean of their age was 29.34±4.82, 30.14±5.33 and 32.54±6.22 respectively. Participants belong to both patient and control groups had underwent same procedure serological tests for Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM I), interleukin-6 (IL6) and C-reactive protein (CRP).
Results: Results showed that there were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in ICAMI, IL-6 and CRP values between patient and control groups and between the patient with moderate and those with severe preeclampsia in all tested gestational age subgroups. This supports the hypothesis stating a role of cytokines and inflammatory biomarkers in the mechanism underlying preeclampsia. Moreover, and at all gestational age subgroups, the ICAMI, CRP and IL-6 values were higher in patients with severe disease when compared with those having moderate disease.
In conclusion, an inflammatory process is blamed to be the underlying mechanism of preeclampsia as proved by the elevated levels biomarkers in these patients.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Pro-Drug Derivatives from Heterocyclic Compounds, Imidazol Oxazole Oxazolone

Nagham Majid AbdulHassan

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 486-494

Synthesis of Schiff bases from the reaction between Cefalexin with the aldehyde (dimethyl amino benzaldehyde) compound(1), which then converted to acids chloride by using thionyl chloride that given hypuric derivative compound (2) that is prepared by reaction between compound (1) and glycine in (NaOH %10) that is closed in the second step by using (Aldehyde, acetic acid anhydride) compound (3).
Another closed is got from mixing compound (3) with (ethyl aceto actate) to produce compound (4). Hydrazine derivative (5) is considered the basic compound that will give the following heterocyclic derivatives from reacting with (malk anhydride, and phthalic anhydride) compound (7a, b), new Schiff bases (6a, b), (benzoyl chloride) (8a, b), and another time with (ethyl aceto acetate) compound (9).
The structure of all the above mentioned compounds was confirmed by elemental analysis and spectral analysis (1H-NMR, and FTIR)