Genetic susceptibility associated with toxoplasmosis; genetic polymorphism, molecular and immunological study

Raad Abbas Kadhim; Ali Hussein Al-Marzoqi; Zahraa Mohammed Al-Taee

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 21-38

In the present study 258 blood samples were gathered from the gynecology wards in Babylon hospital for children and maternity and out private clinic from Babylon and Baghdad province during the period from September 2014 to January 2015 for investigation on toxoplasmosis infections and the study effect of genes modifications on infection susceptibility by parasite. this research was carried out in laboratory of genetic researches in College of Science for girls- Babylon university .
Expression of many cytokines like TNF-α and IL- 1β and genes like ALOX12 through infection with Toxoplasma gondii were revealed modifies as a result in this study. Genotypic and allelic frequency of IFN-γ +874 T/A were statistically differences in relation to the occurrence of the A allele in many cases of parasitic infection. Genetic frequency of sag4 gene among patients was higher than control 10.7% and 1.3%, respectively. The genetic profiling of TLRs revealed that TLR11 and TLR12 was 21.1% and 21.7%, respectively, also the genetic profiling of TUB1 and FOL1 revealed that TUB1 and FOL1 was 19.2% and 16.4% respectively, while IL-6 and IL-1β genes was 14.8%, 12.9% in that order.

Effect of Seed Priming with ZnSO4 and KH2PO4 on Seed Viability of Local Maize (Zea mays L) Seeds Stored for Five Years in Iraq

Hussein J. Hussein

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 39-47

An experiment was achieved to explore the effect of priming techniques on viability characteristics of storage local maize seeds for five years, an experiment was conducted at the Seeds obtained directly from the field of Babil governorate during the season of (2009-2010) and stored until 2014. Seeds were treated for 6 hours at 25 Cº with priming media (2% and 4% of KH2PO4, 0.5% & 1.5% of ZnSO4, hydro-priming and untreated seeds as control). Maximum seed germination percentage, germination speed index (GSI), seedling vigour index (SVI), root length, shoot length, seedling length, seedling fresh and dry weights were observed when the seeds treated with (2% KH2PO4 & 0.5 ZnSO4) compared with control.

Effect of imipramine on structures and shapes of wings of the blow fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera : Calliphoridae)

Aliaa Idan Kadhim; Saadi Muhammad Hilal; Riyad Ali Okaily

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 48-55

Geometric morphometric of wings was used to identify and know the variation in the size and the shape of the wings of two groups of blow fly species Calliphora vicina , one group composed of wings of adult flies resulted from larvae previously reared beef liver spiked with imipramine 25mg drug and the second group were the wings of adult flies emerged from larvae reared on untreated beef liver as a control group . The average centroid size of the left wing were 1361.15 for the treated resulted group and 1388.66 for the control group. Each groups were reared at same environmental conditions of humidity 37.16% RH and temperature 27.78 C˚ . The results showed that there were no significant differences in the average of the centroid size for the left wing for the blow fly C. vicina of the two groups , which probably means that the specimens of the treated group did not affected by the given drug- treated ( imipramine – treated ) diet .

Accumulation of Heavy Metals Nickel chloride(II) and potassium dichromate (VI) in the Male Mice for Different Organs and Its Effects on Absolute Weights

Abeir C. yousif AL-fatlawi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 56-62

Among the hazard of different heavy metals Cr and Ni consider the serious dangers because it's very stable and persistence in the environment causing many alterations in the target tissue such as immuonotoxicity, hematoxicity, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Forty two mice divided into seven groups each one contain six animals. One group was untreated received tap water as control the other groups received different concentration from NiCl2 (II) and K2Cr2O7 (VI). The present study showed that the accumulation of heavy metals (p≤0.05) and the absolute weights (p≤0.01) of different organs were significantly decreasing proportional with concentration as compared with the control group.

Determination of humoral and cellular immune response at systemic and mucosal levels in rabbits after intranasal administration of heat killed H. pylori antigen

Samah A. Kadum; Zainab M. Jasim

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 121-129

The nasal compartment , the common mucosal immune system was attempted as a model for providing the immunological opinion that mucosal immunization induces mucosal as well as systemic immune responses specific to the stimulating antigen. Four successive doses of heat killed H. pylori (HpHK) antigen were intranasal administered in four successive weeks a part to rabbits.
HpHK antigen was stimulated humoral haemagglutinins titers as well as to the significant increased in the total protein concentrations at serum and mucosal secretions in rabbits , in addition to the significantly increased in the concentrations of serum IgA and mucosal anti H. pylori IgA with INF-γ at serum and mucosal levels . Thus H. pylori antigen was B and T cells dependent type.

Hepatoprotective Effect of Matricaria chamomilla Hot Aqueous Extract Against Methomyl 90%- Induced Hepatotoxicity In Mice

Jenan Mahdi Chani; Noor Zuhair Jasim

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 185-195

The effect of orally feeding of hot liquid extract of (Matricaria chamomilla flowers) on hepatotoxicity induced to male mice by methomyl ,S-methyl-1-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]thioacetimidate (IUPAC) was investigated for( 30 days). These effects could be explored by measuring any changings in the weight of both body and liver.Histopathological examination of liver has been performed also along with aspartate aminotransferase(ALAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ASAT) levels in serum.
The results showed that the poisoned group treated with pesticide by using two doses of hot aqueous extract of chamomile (5 and 7) mg / kg of body weight have shown a marked improvement of the symptoms of pesticide poisoning, compared with the positive control group of the pesticide and that the dose of the methomyl 90% led to the toxic effects appeared by decreasing in body weights in mice and noticeable changes in liver tissue accompanied by increasing in its weight.There was significant increasing in the level of liver enzymes (ASAT, ALAT), Histopathological examination of liver sections of mice administered Matricaria chamomilla hot aqueous extract demonstrated reduction of damaged liver tissue induced by methomyl 90%.Current study reveals that hot aqueous extract of Matricaria chamomilla promises protection for hepatocytes against methomyl 90%- hepatotoxic mice induction. Finally,this study recommends that intake of hot aqueous extract of Matricaria chamomilla could be useful for liver disorders.

Relationship between presence of anticardiolipin antibodies and miscarriage

Falah Hassan Kadim

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 372-382

This descriptive study was includes 58 patients with anticardiolipin antibodies were selected out of 290 female patients suffering from miscarriage. All patients were attending Al-Yarmok hospital department of obstetrics and gynecology during the period from 1/July 2015 to 30/April 2016.They were examined their blood and took the information and history in the data questionnaire forms. The data questionnaire designed for purpose of study after read the literatures review. The main goals of this study are evaluate the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies among women with miscarriage and to determine any association between anticardiolipin antibodies and other factors. The data were analyzed using frequency distribution and the percentage by using the computer software. The result of study include anticardiolipin antibodies 20% from all miscarriage patients, 71.4% anticardiolipin antibodies within first trimester, It was showed that incidence of anticardiolipin antibodies with miscarriage 66.07% of patients in the (15 -29) age group, It was showed incidence anticardiolipin antibodies 50% of patients with two miscarriage. 50% of patients with two miscarriage, 28.57% of patients with three miscarriage, illustrated the percentage of miscarriage due to the concentration level of anticardiolipin antibodies was (62.3%) patients in the (60-79) GPLU level. They were incidence of patients with anticardiolipin antibodies and other recurrent or chronic diseases. It is found 28.57% with urinary tract infection, 17.87% with autoimmune diseases, 5.36% with bacteremia, 1. 78% with viral infection, 7.14% respiratory tract infection, while 37.5% idiopathic. The study recommendation the women with one or recurrent miscarriage should be screened the anticardiolipin antibodies before pregnancy for correct assessment and investigations of couples with recurrent miscarriage. Put don’t TORCH tests only to correct diagnosis and treatment and prevent miscarriage.

Study of SNPs in the promoter region of IL-6 gene and other inflammatory markers as predictors of acute appendicitis in Iraqi patients

Rand Muhammed Abdul-Hussain Al-Hussaini

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 383-391

This study was done to find out if the SNPs (-174G/C) in the regulatory (promoter) region of IL-6 gene can be considered as helpful marker and contribute in the prediction of acute appendicitis combined with other inflammatory marker like WBC count and serum CRP levels in 86 Iraqi patients admitted to emergency department of Alsader Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf province with clinical and physical diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and 40 healthy individuals without any inflammatory disorders or clinical manifestation of any disease as control group. The distribution of patients according to gender and age showed higher incidence rates in male and in the second age group (16-22years) respectively, but without significant differences (p˃0.05). This study also showed that the patients had significantly (p<0.05) higher mean WBC counts and CRP when compared to controls. Finally, allelic distributions of SNPs (-174G/C) in the promoter region of IL-6 gene showed no significant difference (p˃0.05) between acute appendicitis patients and controls. That means polymorphism plays no role in acute appendicitis prediction so this SNPs cannot use to confirm the clinical and physical diagnosis of acute appendicitis, while other inflammatory markers (WBC count and serum CRP levels) were useful in the prediction of acute appendicitis in Iraqi population.

Study of the effect of age, gender and seasonal variation on appendicitis in Azizyah-Iraq

Muhammad A. Albahadili

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 334-340

Appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition of the abdomen. The rate of acute appendicitis varies among countries. Declining rates of acute appendicitis have been reported in the United States and Europe. However, the frequency appears to be increasing in the developing countries. Age, gender and seasonal variations of acute appendicitis have been observed in many studies, but the reasons for these variations are not clear. Although acute appendicitis is a common surgical condition, little is known about its epidemiology in Iraq. Statistical analysis was done for 400 patients diagnosed as cases of appendicitis during a two year period from January 2013 to December 2014, treated in Azizyah hospital. Data were analyzed for age, sex, and season (month of admission).
A total of 400 patients were diagnosed as cases of appendicitis. Appendicitis was more common in males (n=224, 56%) than females (n=176, 44%) with male to female ratio of 1.27:1, Highest rates of appendicitis was found in the age group of 10 to 19 years (n=158, 39.5%) and the lowest was 50 and more (n=11, 2.75%). Acute appendicitis high incident in November and December and lowest in June and July but it was high in March and April in teenage group.
In the current study clear differences in the frequencies of appendicitis were noted the appendicitis has clear seasonality with highest rates in winter and spring season. Appendicitis rates were found to be higher in male gender than female. The prevalence peaks in teen age group.

Occurrence of Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from respiratory tract Infection

Hawraa Abdul Ameer Ali; Zahraa Abdul Hussian Habeeb

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 393-404

During the period from November 2011 to February 2012, 96 (69.1 %) isolates of M. catarrhalis were isolated from 139 outpatients of both sex (85 male and 54 female ) with respiratory tract infection (either Tonsilities , Otitis media , Sinusitis ,or Pneumonia) admitted to or presenting at two hospitals in Al-Najaf governorate. TheM.catarrhalis appeared to be the most frequent microorganism isolated in this study, which had percentage 75.6% (96) , followed by Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcusaureus,and Hemophilusinfluenzae in 15.7 % (20) , 6.3% (8) ,and 2.4% (3),respectively .M.catarrhalis isolates had high frequency of isolate in throat swabs than other samples .In this study , only 14(14.6%) isolates of M. catarrhalis were produced sidrophores by growing on M9 medium .In addition, there were 72 (75%) isolates of M.catarrhalis appeared to adhere with the epithelial cells and all isolates show resistance to complement.The phenotypic resistance of 40 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates to 11 commonly used antimicrobial agents by using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. All isolate of M. catarrhaliswere appeared to show highest rate of resistance( 100%) to Penicillin and Ampicillin .Similarly, the isolate exhibited high rate of resistance to Amoxicillin (95%) and Cefotaxime(72.5%) and mild resistance to Ciprofloxacinand Cephalothin in 62.5% for each, Cloramphinicol (57.5%), 52.5% of isolate showed resistance to Gentamicin and Trimethoprim .Whereas no one of isolates show resistance to (Ampicillin +Cloxacillin) and Tetracyclin. In the present study 15 M. catarahalis isolates show MIC ofPenicillin at 512 μg/ml(ie.had highest concentration MIC) while 4 isolate show MIC of Ampicillin at 512 μg/ml.Phenotypic assay was performed to determine the presence of β-lactamase enzyme by using nitrocefin disk . while in genotypic β-lactamase assay, thebro-1 gene found in 25 (62.1%) isolates, whilebro-2 gene was presented only in 3 (7.5%) isolates.

Relationship between gender of fetus and the EEG changes and the relation of these changes with some inflammatory biomarkers in preeclamptic pregnant females

Ihsan Mohammed Abud Ajeena; Muhannad Yahya I. Al-Muhanna Muhannad Yahya I. Al-Muhanna

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 393-399

Background: The electroencephalograph records spontaneous electrical activity generated in the cerebral cortex. This activity reflects the electrical currents that flow in the extracellular spaces of the brain that are the summated effects of innumerable excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials upon cortical neurons. Preeclampsia is a disease of pregnancy characterized by a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more on two separate occasions after 20th week of pregnancy in a previously normotensive woman. This is accompanied by significant proteinuria (>300 mg in 24 hours) (Philip, 2006).
Subjects and methods: The study included 97 pregnant patients with a confirmed diagnosis of preeclampsia, also 72 females with normal pregnancy have been included as a control group. Their ages and gestational ages were consistent with that of the patients', EEG test and some serological tests including ICAM-1, RCRP and IL-6 was done for the participants.
Results: There was a high percentage of EEG changes in the preeclamptic women whom fetus are males. There was a significant differences in the values of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) between preeclamptic women with male fetus and those with female one.