The population of Aphis gossypii Glove on the black grape by the method of direct account

haroon H. Almazroey

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-3

The study was conducted field in terms of Yathrib , Balad , Salahuddin province , a class of black grapes to estimate the population density of aphids by using the method of counting direct plant parts upper and intermediate and lower , as were selected (40 plants ) at random from one of the fields have been counting the plant and only one showed results of the study that the highest population density was in the month of Maes was ( 22.8 ) adult / tree insect , and less population density was in the month of June was ( 9.7 ) extremely / tree insect , and statistical analysis showed significant differences , while the results showed that the upper layer of the plant were more susceptible to infection as the number of adult women ( 23.7 ) adult class upper , and ( 17.4 ) very in -class moderation , and ( 12.5 ) seriously in the bottom layer of the plant , and statistical analysis showed significant differences between the three layers of the plant

الاصابة ببكتريا الكوليرا Vibrio cholerae وعلاقته بمتغييرالجنس والعمر في كربلاء

asmaa A. hatem; alaa mushatat

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 4-9

Cholera is a gastrointestinal tract infection is a common disease in the world. Make this research in the City district of Karbala. The purpose of this research is to investigate cases of this disease among people aged from one year to more than 40 years and for both sexes at Al-Hussein Hospital (p) year in Karbala. It shows that the bacteria Vibrio Cholerae affecting young people in the age group between 12-40 years more than other age groups where it was 62.98%, while the age group of 1-12snh are the children was 23.79% incidence of either age group more than 40 years was the incidence of 13. 22%, show that Alzcornsph injury than females where it was 64.30% while the incidence in females 35.70%. The relationship between education and public health and culture of the people is very important in the incidence of cholera and also found that the relationship between the social and economic situation of the family in addition to poor public health and the environment in poor residential areas due to the increase in population due to displacement.

To study the effectiveness and efficiency of some disinfectants used in Sadr Teaching Hospital in removing bacterial contamination

hazem Azeiz Alhadrawy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 9-17

Collect samples (swabs) from different places to the Chest Hospital educational period (November / 2013 and up to February / 2014) and the two operations are different before and after the sterilization process of sterilization of the places included in the study process. Solutions have been used Minudes and Insidine in all the corridors of the hospital and at different concentrations and individually for each concentration individually or mixed together. The search for that emphasizes the efficiency of the solutions used in the sterilization and find a better focus for use in sterilization. It has been conducting a number of tests for the detection of bacteriological efficient solutions and these tests included bacterial contamination checked before and after the use of solvents, as well as disclosure of the percentage inhibition of each solution as well as the isolation of bacterial species after the sterilization process, and find out the most resistant to these solutions races. Find also included conducting confirmatory tests on the Mahlouli Minudes and Insidine in the laboratory using different concentrations of each of them to see what concentrations are best. The results of the study is that the solution (A), a Minudes more efficient compared with a solution (B) which Insidine when using each solution separately as it appeared that the first solution is a prominent role in the inhibition of bacterial count to a relatively high rate, most of the concentrations used, while solution ( B) afternoon that his role is very weak even focusing center so it is not advisable to use it to those hospital. The other aim of the research is to find a mixture of both Mahloulin and at a known concentration of each in order to be an alternative to what is used in hospitals at present.
As the results showed that the use of a mixture of Mahloulin he is best suited for the sterilization of the rest of the other transactions, and concentrations of 75% of solution A with 25% of solution B and clearly from the rest of the concentrations of transactions other mixture, which included the following percentages (50% +50%), (25 % +75%) of Mahloulin a and B respectively.
The study also showed that the isolates were resistant to solvents were mostly dangerous to human health, particularly the bacterium Klebsiella, Neisseria and the bacteria Pseudomonas, which is characterized by resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants which causes cases of satisfying different human being. Were also attributed the presence of types of negative bacteria dye Cram is the most positive bacteria compared to dye cram in this study.

Effect Of Cutting Types on stem And Growing Media On Cuttings Rooting And Vegetative Growth Of Conocarpus lancifolius

haider Arrees Al-Dulaimy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 98-103

A factorial experiment was conducted in one of plastic houses in Agriculture College of Kufa University during the season of15 2014 to test cutting types on the stem taken using three types (terminal, sub terminal and Basic )and growing media using two types (soil only and (1soil:2 paetmoss) in cuttings rooting and vegetative growth of Conocarpus lancifolius plant. Randomized Complete Block Design(R.C.B.D) with three replicates was used . Results showed that the terminal cuttings were surpassed significantly in increasing rooting percentage(93.39%), high number of root(32.53 cutting) and significant increasing of growing characters ( root length, average of cutting height leaves number , leaves area (cm2 ), dry weight of leaves( g), and chlorophyll content (mg.100 g-1 )they were(12.45 cm, 33.01 cm, 35.56 leaf. cutting-1, 19.56 cm2, 11.91 g and 193.19 mg.100 g-1 ), respectively,and significant increasing in cutting of medium (1 loam : 2 peatmoss ) .

Evaluate the effectiveness of the aqueous extract of horse plant (Equisetum arvense tail) in the treatment of renal failure in rats disease

hassan m. r; jameel m; hisham M; husain h

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 36-44

The study of aqueous extract of the impact of the plant horse Equisetum arvense tail-induced renal failure in rats with a dose of low-lying single from second mercuric chloride (1.5 mg kg) Zarkt through the muscle, then treated rats doses different from the aqueous extract of the plant horsetail (5 mg, 7.5 mg 0.10 mg) and a rate of one dose per day given by mouth. The measure changes in the concentration of serum urea level, concentration Kraatnen serum, serum potassium ion concentration, serum sodium ion concentration after varying periods (3.10, 30.60 (days .ozart search results that Almzroukh second of mercuric chloride dose (1.5 mg kg) caused kidney failure marked by signs moral high clear (p <0.01) in the concentration of urea level of serum (46.14 mg 100 ml) and the concentration of Kraatnen serum (2.6 mg 100 ml) and ion concentration serum potassium (5.46 mg 100 ml) and the concentration ion sodium serum 152.83) mg / 100 ml (compared to natural Bmadladtha (20.76 mg 100 ml, 0.61 mg 100 ml, 4.41 mg 100 ml, 151.33.) was accompanied by a decrease in animal weights, which continued with increasing periods of time.
   The results indicated that the aqueous extract of the plant horsetail after the events of kidney failure cause a significant decrease in the level of concentration of the level of urea serum and Kraatnen serum ion serum potassium ion sodium serum and continued the moral decline over time and showed results that the best concentration of a significant decrease reason (p < 0:01) important is to focus 7.5 mg, where the level of concentration of urea serum dropped to 28.6 mg 100 ml and the concentration of Kraatnen serum 0.69 mg 100 ml and ion concentration serum potassium 5.12 mg 100 ml and ion concentration sodium serum 151.7 mg 100 ml after 60 days of treatment compared to the values ​​of the concentrations of treatment group second only mercuric chloride, and accompanied by a clear improvement in the weights of rats. Accordingly These results are clear evidence about the possibility of treating renal failure using this herbal plant.

Study the anatomical characteristics of the skin leaves, stems and leaves of goblet and sweating securities for some types of gender Bauhinia L. and L. Prosopis legume family Leguminosae (Fabaceae) in Iraq.

Amena A; Ahma A

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 314-323

The present research studied the anatomical characteristics that which included the features of epidermis of leaf, stem, calyx to four species of leguminosae family, Bauhinia variegata L., Bauhinia purpurea L., Bauhinia racemasa Lam., Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride (wild). and features of epidermal anticlinal cell walls, and where the distribution of stomata and the system of venation. in addition, the importance of anatomical feature in separation and identification of species become clear. This appeared clearly with difference of venation system between genus and gave proportional between species of Bauhinia in addition to variation in hairs types and distribution

Effect of aquatic extract of Rosemarinus officinalis L.Leaves in the levels of ovary hormones and gonadotropins in the rats exposed to toxicosis by nitrate

Ihsan R.Ibrahim; Hassan F.Z. Al-zorfy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 251-261

To Studding the Effect of aquatic extract of Rosemarinus officinalis L. Leaves in the levels of ovary hormones and gonadotropins in the rats exposed to toxicosis by nitrate, taken (20) adult female rats, were divided into four groups: control group that was drenched with (0.5) ml distill water, group G1 drenched sodium nitrate in concentration (200)mg/kg, group G2 was given Rosemarinus officinalis leves extract in concentration (226.68) mg/kg, and this concentration of Rosemarinus officinalis leves extract present effect dose (ED50. While group G3 was given sodium nitrate in concentration (200)mg/kg and Rosemarinus officinalis leves extract in concentration (226.68) mg/kg, it was daily treatment continued for (16) days . The result showd that Rosemarinus officinalis extract led to significant increase (p< 0.05) in ovary hormones level that include estrogen and progesterone hormone, addition significant increase (p< 0.05) in gonadotropins that include Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Lutelnizing Hormone (LH). significant decrease (p< 0.05) in estrogen and progesterone hormone, addition into significant decrease (p< 0.05) in level Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Lutelnizing Hormone (LH) in group treated with nitrate. Extract with nitrate performed improvement in level estrogen, progesterone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Lutelnizing Hormone (LH).

The impact of industrialization using egg sacks thermally weakened on chicken meat infected experimentally resistant parasite Eimeria tenella

Sukaina J; Haitham M; Hadi R

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 340-349

This experiment was designed to see changes to occur on the blood of infected chicks experimental measurements of parasite E. tenella which prevented against infection using bags debilitating parasite eggs Hrraria..astkhaddmt In this experiment, 60 chick cup type KOP is Mjnsh day-old, were randomly divided into three groups in each group of 20 chick, first set a negative control were given ration normal and without the introduction of injury, the second group control is positive given ration normal with the introduction of a pilot injured after the age of 20 days, the third chick was given a normal diet with immunized using 300 eggs bag devitalized thermally oral was the development of the experimental infection where after immunization a week after the age of 20 days, serum samples were collected before and after the injury was conducted physiological tests and biochemical them .ohart results to improve blood measurements in general after the introduction of injury significance level (p <0.5) in the immunized group compared with measurements the positive control group as it recorded a rise in the proportion of RBC, WBC, PCV, H / L., and a highly significant decrease (p <0.5) in the number of bags immunized eggs raised group compared with the control group positive after infection. High moral high (P <0.05) in the level of biochemical blood and the level of total protein, cholesterol level for the group immunized compared with the positive control qualities. High moral decline (P <0.05) in the level of calcium in the positive control group compared with the immunized group.

The effect of increasing the level of vitamin A Almalondaa Aldehid (MDA) and super Okseid Desmiotiz enzyme (SOD) in experimentally infected chicken meat parasite Alaamireya Tnala Eimeria tenella

Sukaina J; Haitham M; Hadi R

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 350-356

This experiment was designed to see changes to occur on the effectiveness of the super enzyme Okseid Desmiotiz SOD and the ratio Almalondaa Aldehid MDA in the blood of infected chicks experimental serum parasite E. tenella which was given increased vitamin A by 350 mg / L Me.astkhaddmt In this experiment, 60 chick cup is Mjnsh old type one day, were randomly divided into three groups in each group 20 chick, first set a negative control were given ration normal and without the introduction of injury, the second group of 20 chick positive control were given ration normal with the introduction of a pilot injured, the third group of 20 chicks given a bush normal with increased vitamin A it was the introduction of the experimental infection where after the age of 20 days, serum samples were collected before and after the injury was the level of enzyme expense of SOD and MDA. results pointed to a decline in the effectiveness of the enzyme SOD after the introduction of infection (p <0.5) in a range of positive control and improve effectiveness in the group to increase vitamin A MDA ratio significantly increased (p <0.5) in the positive control group, compared with a negative control after infection, either in the form of vitamin A increase the group showed a marked improvement compared with a positive control.

2,4_diacetylphloroglucinol compound produced by the bacterium effect Pseudomonas fluorescens on some microbiology *

Helean M; Ahlaam K; Jameal J

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 357-370

The present study aimed to investigate the antagonistic activity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) product by Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from the roots of plants against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as Aspergillus niger.
A total of 100 samples of soil have been collected from the area surrounding the roots of plants which involved 15 samples from beans and rice plants and 14 samples from each of wheat, millet region, chard, sunflower and periwinkle.
the results of molecular diagnostics by PCR depending on 16SrRNA confirmed that only 24 isolates were belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens which distributed among 11 isolates were isolated from the roots of beans plants, 7 isolates from the roots of rice plants and 6 isolates from the roots of wheat.
Molecular diagnosis of (2,4-DAPG) product by Pseudomonas fluorescens has been carried out using PCR technique depending on phlD gene. The results revealed that only 13 isolate have gene coded for 2,4_diacetylphloroglucinol by appearance of band at 745 base pairs when amplicon was electrophoresis on agarose gel.
The results of partial identification of 2,4-DAPG according to the TLC technique demonstrate the presence of 2,4- DAPG in the supernatant of Pseudomonas fluorescens where Rf value was (0.3), also the results of IR technique confirmed the presence of compound in the supernatant of P. fluorescens.
The results of antagonistic activity of bacterial supernatant to Pseudomonas fluorescens toward Gram positive (Staphyllococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis( and Gram negative bacteria(Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae) as well as toward Aspergillus niger showed highly inhibitory effectiveness of bacterial supernatant to Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates containing phlD gene toward Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and Aspergillus niger, where the diameters of inhibition zones ranged range between 10-22 mm, 10-20 mm and 20-30 mm respectively, within 72 hours of incubation, as the diameters of inhibition zones of bacterial supernatant during the period of 96 hour of incubation were ranged between 11 -26 mm, 11-20 mm and 26- 32 mm respectively toward Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as Aspergillus niger. The effectiveness of bacterial supernatant of one isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens that not carried phlD gene toward Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was studied so the diameters of inhibition zone were 11-20 mm and 12 - 19 mm respectively after 72hour of incubation while within 96 hours of incubation it was ranged between 10-21mm and 16-20 mm respectivel. Also the results showed the ability of bacterial supernatant to Pseudomonas fluorescens not containing phlD gene to inhibit Aspergillus niger where the diameter of inhibition zone was 20 mm after 72 and 96 hour of incubation.

The effect of the concentration and the number of times sprayed humus (Liq-Humus) in the growth of flowers and carnations plant Dianthus caryophyllus L.

Sadoon AlEjeel; Mushtaq Al-zurfii; Zainab kudair

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 371-381

An experiment was conducted at the nursery of Agriculture Faculty/ Kufa university during growing season of 2012 – 2013 to study the Effect concentration and spraying number of Humus on growth and flowering Dianthus caryophyllus L. plant The experiment was adopted in Randomized Complete Block Design ( R.C.B.D ) with three replicates in two factors. The first factor was the concentration of Laq-Humus (0,1,2)ml.L-1 the second was the spraying number (0,2,3) spraying times and ther concentration. The means of treatments were compare by using the Least Significant Difference ( L.S.D ) test at 0.05 probability Rusults showed that spraying of Laq-Humus with concentration of 2ml.L-1 for three spraying increased significantly growth parameters plant height , leaf number ,shoot dry weight , total content of chlorophyll , soluble carbohydrates ,root height , root dry weight ,(number of flowers , flowers diameter, petal number , dry weight of flower )9.67 flowers.plant -1 ,132.33days,5.30cm , 38.33 petal. Flowers-1,2.12 gm as compared with control treatmeant which gave the least values as 4.67 flower.plant - ,155.67day , 1.97 cm 25.33 petal. Flowers-1,0.29 gm ,respectively.

Microbial evaluation of local and imported yoghurt in Basrah markets

Amaal K; Zainab Abd Ali

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 382-389

26 sample of yoghurt were collected from different local markets in Basrah (13) sample imported yoghurt, (2) samples of local yoghurt and (11) yoghurt samples made in houses for two season (summer ,winter) Microbiological test were examined (total coliform , E.coli, Salmonella and S.aureus proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold &yeast count). The results showed that the bacterial count in local yoghurt with higher level in summer season compared with imported yoghurt. The result revealed that local yoghurt (canon) with high quality. Total coliform, E.coli, mold &yeast were found in all local yoghurt sample which were made in houses but Salmonella was found only in some of them summer season.

Anatomical and Histological study of prosencephalon (Cerebrum) in Stock Dove Columba oenas Linnaeus, 1758

Wijdan Basheer Abid; Iman Sami Ahmad; Asmaa Basheer Abid; Zenb Abas Abdol Al-Jabaar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 390-402

Morphological and histological study was conducted to examine the structure of prosencephalon (Cerebrum) in Columba oenas (Linnaeus, 1758). Thirteen animals of C. oenas were used in the present study. The brains were excised, fixed and recessed for the preparation of microscope slides and used hematoxylin-eosin stain, methylene blue and Bielschowsky’s stain.
The result of morphological study showed that the cerebrum is apportion of the prosencephalon and the largest part of the brain and the dorsal surface was smooth and convex and composed of two cerebral hemispheres. The cerebral hemisphere contains the cavity which called lateral ventricle. The hemispheres were connected by the anterior commissure. Histologyically the cerebral hemispheres were divided into two regions namely the pallium and subpallium. The number of major strata of the pallium was four: The hyperpallium, Mesopallium, Nidopallium and Archopallium.
The subpallium was divided into two regions namely the striatal and pallidal. The nerve fibers tracts extend from the striatal and pallidal through the anterior commissure that connected the cerebral hemispheres.

Biological control by Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus subtilis bacteria to Fusarium chlamydosporum caused yellowing and stiffness of the detached leaves of date palm growth summit under Field conditio

Ibraheem K; Rajaa G; Asyad A

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 403-412

The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the pathogen cause yellowing and stiffness of the detached leaves of date palm growth summit under field conditions.The results of isolation from roots showed presence of the fungal Fusarium chlamydosporum in palm trees of Babylon and Karbala provinces , this is the first record of the fungus F.chlamydosporum on palm trees in Iraq. The initial detection of pathogenic isolates of F.chlamydosporum using red radish seeds showed that all isolates tested were pathogenic and germination Percentage ranged between 12 – 27% , and the results show the effect of isolate of F.chlamydosporum (F.c3) in the severity of injury of palm offshoots under field conditions,the isolate(F.c3) gave a significantly rise in the severity of the injury reached to 93.75% compared to comparison which was 0.0%,the treatment of addition bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus subtilis from concentration 6.5 x 10-6 , 5.5 x -107 (colonial unit x Ml-1) respectively, achieved protection of palm offshoots from injury with the isolate (F.c3) under field conditions, resulted in the treatment of bacteria A.chroococcum and B.subtilis to a reduction in the severity of the injury reached to 12.50% and 18.75% respectively compared to the treatment (pathogenic fungal only) that the severity of injury reach to 93.75%.

Study The Causes of Date Palm Fruits Absence by Insects and Fungi

Naser H; Alaa N; Ehab Abd

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 413-422

The current study has been performed during the cultivation season of 2010 to find out the causal agents of date palm fruits dropping. Three different areas were selected at basrah city which were: abu- Alkhaseeb, shaat Alarab and Alqurna. Several samples represent the dropped fruits of date palm were collected at three time period, the first period was the end of march, the second was 30 days after the first period and the third one was 60 days after the first period the associated fungi with fruits dropping were isolated, and the inhibition activity of the some fungicides were tested against most predominant fungi.
Results indicated that the first period was the lowest period for the fruits dropping percent which was 16.89%, followed by the third period which showed the highest percent and reported 55%. Shaat Alarab area was the highest among studied area in the total fruit dropping percent which was 46.56% compared to the lowest percentage reported in Abu-Alkhaseeb area 33.33%.
In addition, results revealed that the lesser moth insect Barletoria amydraula was the main causal agents of fruit dropping, and no other insect was reported during all above mentioned period. Different fungal species were isolated from the dropped fruits as the follow Alternaria alternate, A. raphani, cladsporium oxysporum, fusarium chamydosporium, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F.moniliform, Ulocladium sp., U. alternariae, U. chartarum. U. consertiale and Ulocladium sp. Its noteworthy that the fungal species were the most abundant causal agents of date palm fruit dropping with a total percent of 28.00% compared to 22.63% which reported with the lesser moth insect, also, both fungal species of Alternaria alternate and F.moniliform were the most predominant species among other fungi with isolation percent 12.01% and 11.66%, respectively. Finally, the fungicide vacomel M.Z. 72% proved high efficiency in their growth inhibition of isolation fungi with percent of 100%.

Isolation of lactobacillus sp. And study antibacterial activity on some enteric bacterial growth

a Al- miahy; Suaa; d A. Faza

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2016, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 423-430

This study included to investigate the action of Lacto bacilli which isolated from raw cow milk were collected from local markets in Al- Diwaniyia province ,and study the effect of these bacteria 0n diarrhea causing bacteria .
A total of (100) samples , of study and isolated (12) sample from lactobacillus sp , for the antimicrobial activity of the isolated lactobacillus sp were used against on some diarrhea causing bacteria ( Escherichia coli ,Salmonella sp. ,Shigella sp ., Proteus sp . and Klebsiella sp.) using disk assay method .
In conclusion , lactobacillus sp appear antimicrobial activity in vitro against the tested indicator bacteria and have better antimicrobial activity at cancentration of 〖10〗^7cfu/ml