Molecular Detection of PstS Gene Responsible for Multidrug Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates

Raed Ali Hussein Shabaa

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

The goal of this study was to determine the presence of the gene PstS implicated in the resistance to some antibiotics that used for chemotherapy of infectious diseases caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Twenty two P. aeruginosa isolates from two hospitals in in Al-Najaf, Iraq, were analyzed over six months study period (2013-2014). The isolates were recovered from patients with multiple types of infections, mostly respiratory tract, urinary tract and postoperative wound infections. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the disk diffusion method for some antibiotics used in the treatment for P. aeruginosa infections. In order to identify the gene implicated in antimicrobial resistance, PCR technique were used.
The bacterial isolates appear resistances against some antibiotics were: Cefepime (90.9%), Piperacillin (81.81%), Tobramycin (54.54%), Aztreonam (31.82%), Gentamicin (27.27%) while Ciprofloxacin (0%) which was the most effective anti-pseudomonas agents in this study. PCR products of the expected size were obtained for PstS gene at the isolates that were resistant to antimicrobials(59.1%). At the sensitive isolates amplicons were not obtained.

The Rate of Pulmonary Mycotic Infections with Coccidioidomycosis in An Najaf Province

Raed Ali Hussein Shabaa

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 8-18

This study was aimed to evaluate the rate of infections with Coccidioidomycosis in An Najaf province and to demonstrate the importance of molecular diagnoses methods.
Ninety three respiratory specimens were obtained from patients with Coccidioidomycosis seen at Al-Sader Teaching Hospital and AL-Hakim general hospital in Al-Najaf, Iraq between January 2014 and June 2014. clinical isolates were examined for Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii and inoculated onto sabouraud dextrose agar plates.
Nested PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis by screening for the presence of proline-rich antigen (PRA) which is a protein located in the spherule cell wall of C. immitis and C. posadasii. Twenty one clinical isolates determined to be Coccidioides spp. by microscopic examination from a total of 93 respiratory specimens, which were coexamined by general fungal culture. Nested PCR results showed a product of 526 bp was obtained from 23 of the 93 strains tested after the first PCR, whereas an expected 342 bp nested PCR product was detected by agarose electrophoresis from 25 strains tested.

Study of the Protective Effects of Ginger Extracts Against Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats.

Zainab Sajid Al-Shemmari; Haider Salih

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 19-34

The present study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective and Antioxidant activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale using carbon tetra chloride (Ccl4 )- induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The study was conducted of 42 male rats; the animals were allocated into 6 groups (7 rats in each group) and treated as follow: groupI treated with oral doses of normal saline and saved as a control; groupII treated with 0.5 ml of volume dose oral doses of Ccl4 suspended in olive oil doses of Ccl4 suspended in olive oil (1:1, v/v) 0.5ml at 3 days in week; group III treated with 0.5 ml of volume dose from Ccl4 plus ethanolic extract at concentration 300 mg/kg at the same time; group IV treated 0.5 ml of volume dose from with Ccl4 plus ethanolic extract at concentration 150 mg/kg at the same time ; group V treated with 0.5 ml of volume dose from Ccl4 plus aqueous extract at concentration 300 mg/kg at same time; group VI treated with 0.5 ml of volume dose from Ccl4 plus aqueous extract at concentration 150 mg/kg at the same time; at the end of treatment period (8 weeks), rats were scarified, blood sample obtained for assessment of oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant parameters MDA , GSH and vitamin C. Additionally, serum levels of ALT and AST were evaluated after and before treatment, the result indicated that ethanol extract at concentration 300mg/kg has the ability to a significant decrease (p<0.05) in activities of serum liver enzyme AST, ALT , vitamin C , and MDA level, a significant increase (p<0.05)in GSH level . The results of this study indicate that the two concentrations(150, 300)mg/kg of the ethanolic Zingiber officinale rhizomes extracts gave a good results, even better than aqueous extract.

Effect of Enterobacter cloacae enterotoxins on in vivo lymphocyte activity

Dheyaa Shnan Abdulkadhim

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 35-44

This study was aimed to investigate the role of Enterobacter cloacae and their enterotoxins (crude and partially purified toxin) on total and difrential count of WBC and phagocytic activity by Nitrobluetetrazolium (NBT) reduction test and formazan production in both systemic and mucosa of digestive system. The result showed that, the three antigens (heat killed bacterial cell, crude enterotoxin and partially purified heat stable enterotoxin(PPHSE))injected in experimental animals(rabbit) there is a significant increasing level in WBC total count (11.2×103 cell/ml) in injected rabbit with crude enterotoxin, while there is significant increase in the level of lymphocyte (differential count) (95.6%) in rabbit injected with PPHSE. In cellular immune response NBT test was used for neutrophil phagocyte assessment. The result of systemic cellular immune response showed high level of phagocytic activity for crude enterotoxin antigen with mean value (44.4). While for mucosal phagocytic activity in( duodenum and appendix), the crude enterotoxin showed high level phagocytic activity with mean value (57.4) and(48.6) respectively compared with control treatment.

Assessment of Thrombospondin-1 Level in Type II Diabetic Patients

Wijdan Rajh Hamza Al-Kraity; Arshad Noori Ghani Al-Dugaili

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 45-59

The study is intended to asses serum levels of Thrombospondin-1, fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients, also correlation between Thrombospondin-1 in both males and females.
The study was conducted on randomly selected 65 type 2 diabetic patients (34 males and 31 females) attending the diabetes mellitus center in Al-Sadder Teaching City in Al- Najaf province , Iraqi and a group of 24 apparently healthy subjects (12 Males and 12 Females) were included as a control group . The Study was carried out from August 2013 to February 2014.The patients' age was ranging from 35 to 64 years old.
The results indicated a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum FBG and TSP-1 levels in diabetic patients in comparing with healthy groups.
The results also revealed no significant differences (p> 0.05) in serum TSP-1 levels between males and females in both patients and healthy groups, while the results of FBG levels significantly (p<0.05) increase in females than males in both patients and healthy groups.
The results have been shown significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between TSP-1 and FBG in (males and females), males, females DM patients.
The present study concluded that Thrombospondin-1 were marker for detection and diagnosis of diabetic patients type 2.

Investigation of Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries patients

Israa abdulameer Flayyih; Mahdi H. Al-Ammar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 50-63

Introduction: The clinical specimens (100) were collected from patients suffering from dental plague infectious during the period from October ( 2012 to March 2013) in Najaf City .
Methodology: Streptococcus mutans isolates were detected by cultural and biochemical tests as well as API 20strep , then confirm the GTFB gene by PCR technique .
Result: Streptococcus mutans were recorded (40%) among Mutans Streptococcus from total isolates . The virulence factors of bacteria were detected and the results showed that all isolates were produced glucan,biofilm and Dextranase 40(100%) and varied produce heamolysin 30(75%) . Also, 20-25(50-62.5%) of Streptococcus mutans has the colonization factor antigen III, ,I respectively and 15 (37.5%) of isolates are mutacin production.Finally, Molecular study by PCR technique was used for detection gtfB gene, it was found the gtfB gene predominance in 22 (55%) of clinical isolates .
Conclusion: The study showed that Streptococcus mutans have gtfB gene which responsible for the pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans .

Genetic Diversity of Some Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill Varieties in Iraq Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 64-80

This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity among 19 tomato varieties (determinate and indeterminate) cultivated in Iraq using polymerase chain reaction based DNA marker (PCR based DNA markers Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs). To achieve PCR reactions ,total genomic DNA was isolated from fresh leaves (2 weeks old). The average yields of DNA were in the range of 100-295 ng/μl with a purity ranging between 1.8-1.9.
A total of 21 alleles were detected among the tested varieties using 5 SSRs loci distributed on 4 chromosomes of tomato. The molecular size of bands obtained from amplification of SSR products ranged from 121 to 247 bp. Alleles ranged from one in (Tom 8-9, Tom 41-42 and Tom 67-68 loci) to twelve in Tom 49-50 locus. The values of heterozygosity for each locus ranged between 0.63 for Tom 31-32 and 0.89 for Tom 49-50 with a mean value of 0.30. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values for the SSR loci ranged from 0.45 in Tom 31-32 to 0.58 in Tom 49-50 loci with an average of 0.21. Each one of (Tom 8-9, Tom 41-42 and Tom 67-68 loci) produce 0.0 value for both heterozygosity and PIC.
The study revealed that, The lowest genetic distance was (0.3244) between varieties Kenanh (lane5) and W arda (lane10), while,the highest genetic distance was (0.9177) between varieties Helam (lane3) and Super marimond (lane 16). The genetic similarity values ranging from (0.0823 to 0.6756) depending upon the genetic distance values that ranging from (0.3244 to 0.9177), indicating the largest diversity with percentage of (32 to 91%) among the tested varieties.
The analysis of the obtained results from genetic distances and Neighbor-joining dendrogram (unrooted tree) revealed that, the 19 tested tomato varieties can be grouped into two major groups: first cluster include 9 varieties distributed in two subgroups.The second major cluster include 10 varieties which in turn divided into two subgroups.

Bacteriological study of Enterobacter spp. that isolated from different clinical specimens

eem Abid; Intidhaar Na; Mahdi H; Al-Amaar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 81-98

The clinical specimens (718) were collected from inpatients and outpatients suffering from different infectious from (Al-Hussein, Maternity and Children, Surgical) hospitals and general laboratory health in Al-Nassiriyah city during the period from February 2011 to June 2012. Enterobacter isolates which were diagnosed according cultural and biochemical tests as well as API 20E . Eighty four isolates of Enterobacter were collected (32%) among G- ve and (18% ) from total isolates .It was distributed to 25(21%) from urine , 16 (19%) skin and soft tissues , 11(23%) stool , 11(17%) burn infections , 10 (22%) ENT , 5(28%) blood , 3(100%) CSF and 3(12%) post operations wounds ., and two species of Enterobacter , E.cloacae (89.3%) and E.sakazakii (10.7 %) were diagnosed . The virulence factors of bacteria were detected and the results showed that all isolates were produced of siderophore , and most isolates were capsule formation , but give negative result for haemolysin and protease . Also, 80 (95%) of Enterobacter has the CFA / III and 15(18 %) of isolates are bacteriocin production.

Relation of Antimullarian Hormone with other Hormones in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Iman Mohammed Jabr; Hussein Kadhem Al-Hakeim

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 99-110

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is very common endocrinological disorder in premenapusal women. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is considered a local growth factor and a cellular differentiation factor. In females, AMH is mainly secreted exclusively by the granulosa cells of ovarian early developing follicles. In the present study, the relationships between AMH and different hormones were studied in PCOS women. Sixty PCOS women patients were participated in the study in addition to 30 healthy women as control group. Serum hormones (LH, FSH, testosterone, E2, progesterone (PRG), cortisol, Prolactine (PRL)) were measured using ready for use ELISA kits.
The results showed a significant higher Antimullarian hormone (AMH) level in PCOS patients as compared with healthy control group. The results revealed a mild correlation between serum AMH with serum cortisol (r=0.327, p=0.011) and testosterone (r=0.390, p=0.008), respectively. The results of the present study concluded that the AMH level is higher in PCOS in comparing with control group. The correlation study between AMH and every measured parameter in PCOS patients showed that AMH are negatively correlated with age, and directly correlated with serum cortisol and testosterone. These three parameters are the most effective parameters affecting the level of AMH in PCOS patients. The present study spot the light on the role of cortisol and subsequently adrenal cortex activity in the PCOS women.

Antibiotics susceptibility of E.cloacae and E.sakazakii that isolated from different clinical specimens

eem Abid; Intidhaar Na; Mahdi H. Al-Amaar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 112-130

Two species of Enterobacter (84 isolates) E.cloacae (75 isolates) and E.sakazakii (9 isolates) were isolated from different clinical specimens .
They are observed , all isolates (84) were resistant to β– lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin and cefoxitin) but the resistance for cephalothin ,cephalexin and ampicillin , were 98% , 92% and 90% respectively , 75% , 61% and 50% for doxycycline , nitrofurantion and chloramphenicol respectively .The high values of MICs were registered to cefoxitin (46-256) µg / ml , while the lower MICs values of cefepime , imipenem and ciprofloxacin were (0.5 -32 , 0.5 -16 , 0.5 – 4) µg / ml respectively .
From the study 72 (86%) of isolates were produced β– lactamase , 63 isolates (84%) of E.cloacae can produce β –lactamase , and all isolates (9)of E.sakazakii gave positive result for β –lactamase.

The using of antisperm antibody assay as a predictive diagnostic test of male infertility

Ali A. Al-Fahham; Yahya K. M. Al-Sultani; Abdulzahra K. Muhammad-Ali

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 131-141

Assessment of male infertility is the first step in resolving this worldwide problem . The aim of the present study is to investigate the predictive value of using ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay) test for serum and seminal plasma Antisperm antibodies (ASA) as a complementary tool to assist in diagnosis of infertility . This study was carried out between January 2013 and November 2013 including one hundred (100) selected infertile men who attended to fertility Center in Al-Sadr Medical City . The study also included twenty (20) healthy volunteer fertile as a control . The results showed that the incidence of serum and seminal ASA in infertile men is significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in control fertile men. the incidence of serum and seminal ASA is significantly (p<0.05) higher in normozoospermic patients than that in control fertile men . There was a high significant negative correlation (p<0.01) between the concentration of serum and seminal ASA in infertile men and each of : sperm motility, progressive motility, while a high significant positive correlation (p<0.01) is seen between serum and seminal ASA in infertile men and sperm agglutination, and a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with seminal WBC count . The study concluded that ELISA ASA assay can be routinely used as a complementary test to diagnose infertility .

Partial Purification of Metalloprotease from Acacia farnesiana

Nazar Abdulameer Hamzah; Muhannad Mohammed Sahib

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 142-151

Not previously studied metalloprotease was tested in four species of leguminosae, purified and characterized from Acacia farnesiana which have maximum specific activity 25.01 U/mg. Precipitation by 50% ammonium sulfate referred to increase of specific activity (35.84) U/mg while loading on DEAE-Cellulose exchanger pointed out elevation of specific activity and purification fold, 51.39 unit/mg and 2.06 respectively. Molecular mass, pH and temperature optima of purified metalloprotease were 55.11kDa, 7.5 and 50oC respectively. All metal ions were decreased enzyme activity except the zinc showed the increasing about 16%. EDTA was inhibiting the activity in otherwise other inhibitor not affected on enzyme activity. Optimum substrate for activity was BSA and has Km and Vmax 1.11mM and 625 mM/ min respectively.

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PRYMIDINE DERVATIVE OF SOME BACTERIA PATHOGENS FROM URINARY TRACT

MUSLIM IDAN MOHSIN

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 152-160

The current the study is carried out investigate of antimicrobial activity of uracil isophenol compound against some bacteria pathogens causing UTI infection . The urine sample were collecting to hospitals in Najaf of (AL Sadr Medical City ) for the period from (2 in July 2013 to 2 in September 2013 up) The results were as follows: The proportion of isolated bacteria is E.coli 40% higher and the proportion of bacteria isolated is Staphylococcus aureus 32% and isolation of bacteria Pseudomonas.aeruginosa 28% in addition to some of the genera were diagnosed. .
In the course of the program directed towards the synthesis of fused nitrogen heterocyclic compound and as an extension of efforts directed towards the development of convenient synthetic approaches for the synthesis one of pyrimidine derivatives called uracil isophenol with an expected broad spectrum of biological activity. Studies have shown that uracil isophenol exhibit various biological activities. In biological study was to demonstrate in trial the new compound "uracil isophenol" in different concentration observed the following E.coli exhibit sensitivity to all concentration with differ inhibition zone size ; but the same zone size for (10,15,20) mg/ml the inhibition area was reached for 21 mm . in spite of difference in concentration. While Staphylococcus aureus also sensitive and the zone larger than E.coli ,and have the same zone size of E.coli of concentration(3)mg/ml was reached for 15 mm . While Pseudomonas.aeruginosa also exhibit sensitivity but less than others except for (25) mg/ml it have inhibition zone was reached for size of 25 mm . Results were compared with control groups were analyzed statistically by results analysis system completely random ANOVA and LSD.

Visceral leishmaniasis (Kalazar) and the immune system disorder, in children at Al Muthanna, Governorate

Fadil Abass Abid; Mohamed Maroof Middib

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 161-171

Thirty five patients aged between 7 months-17 years were all positive for Leishmania tropica parasite, using Bios Company test kit called ''Kalazar Detect Rapid Test" . Blood cell counts for leukocytes were 4 x103, lymphocytes where, neutrophils were and platelets. the cell count were done using Sysmex model KX-21 cell count, Japan (Sysmex Corporation). Using 12 micro liters blood taken from the patient and using glass slide inserted in pocket in the system. Five patients were spleenactomyzed

Study the efficacy of Fenugreek extract in reduction of biochemical and histopathological Changes, Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin in adult rats.

Adnan; M.Jassim; A.Ghafar; Mohammed; Saif Sattar Rasheed

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 172-187

The protective effect of Fenugreek extract against Saccharin toxicity
female rats was studied. The experiment was carried out along 12 weeks on fifteen adult female albino rats were used in this study, the animals divided randomly in to fed three groups: control group , & two treatment groups . group 1 was fed orally with saccharin administration of 100 mg /l of drinking water daily & group 11given was fed orally with saccharin administration of 100 mg /l of drinking water daily along with extract of trigonella foenum gracum of 250mg/kg by intragastric lavage.
The results revealed that saccharin provoked highly significant reduction in highly significant reduction in albumin ,total protein , phosphorus ,calcium.Results compared to control. Group11 treated with trigonella extract showed increases of serum Calcium , total protein ,phosphor , albumin. no significant differences(p<0.05) between treatments and control.
Activities of Alanine aminotranferease (ALT), and aminaspartate transferase (AST)) increased significantly following saccharin admistration to rats. while trigonella foenum gracum extract lead to decrease ALT&AST level of serum enzyme . In general, Alcoholic extract of trigonella foenum at dose 250 mg/kg able to reduce the effects of saccharin intake. Microscopic examination of liver sections sho revealed congestion and large thrombus within the central vein, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the hepatic tissue. Also there is extensive necrosis and dilation of sinusoids accompanied with haemorrhage ,while rats trigonella extract group showed , improvement in the hepatocytes exhibiting normal central vein with normal radiating appearance of hepatocytes around it, with cellular regeneration of hepatocytes and mild dilation of sinusoids. kidney section in tissue of animals treated with saccharine , show extensive necrosis in both renal convoluted tubules and glomeruli ,also there is marked damage and desequemation of epithelial lining of renal tubules acompanied with proteinecious casts and deposition of hemosidrin pigment in the renal tissue .while animal treated with trigonella extract show regeneration of epithelial lining of renal convoluted tubules and the glomeruli have normal appearance with high cellularity , Also there is mild dilation and mild necrosis of renal tubules. Animal treated with saccharine show severe destruction of intestinal villi and damage with desequemation of intestinal epithelium which lining villi, accompanied with scattered infiltration of inflammatory cells particularly neutrophils.
Trigonella extract show significant improvement in tissue of intestine there is mild necrosis and clear regeneration in the epithelial lining of intestine.There is depletion of white pulp (thick arrow) and proliferation of red pulp and deposition of amyloidal in saccharine group , there is no prominent changes in spleen treated with extract .

The Effect Of Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation On Iron Status In Infertile Women

sami raheem; basma shamkhi; manal yahta

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 188-197

Non randomized clinical trial study done in the fertility center at AL-Sadder teaching hospital in AL-Najaf city from the period of February 2012 to August 2012.This study included 40 ICSI cycle to determine the effect of the controlled ovarian hyper stimulation (COHS) on iron status ( serum iron and serum ferritin ). The protocol used was short protocol. The results showed significant decrease(p< 0.05) in serum ferritin after (COHS).

Effect of Some Environmental Properties on Distribution of Aquatic Macrophyte in Majnoon Marsh, Southern Iraq.

Mohammed A. H. Al-Kenzawi; Sanaria A. Jaafer Al-Allaq

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 198-208

The macrophyte distribution of Majnoon Marsh is described in relation to water depth, light penetration, turbidity, air temperature, water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chloride, reactive phosphate, reactive nitrate, and reactive nitrite. Changes in species composition of macrophytes are visualized by means of multivariate analysis. CANOCO ordination programs (CCA) were used to analyze the data set. The classification of 100 stands revealed nine aquatic macrophyte communities, which have 15 aquatic macrophyte species can be recognized in the marsh. These macrophytes species belong to three categories: Submerged species, representing by Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, Najas armata, Najas minor, Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Potamogeton pectinatus, Hydrilla verticillata, Chara sp.,; free-floating hydrophytes, Lemna minor, Salvinia natans; and the dominant emergent species, Phragmites australis, Typha domingensis, and Schoenoplectus litoralis. Species diversity increases with decreasing salinity and water depth; also, increasing water nutrient and light penetration play important role in increasing species diversity. Free-floating macrophytes (Lemna minor and Salvinia natans) have significant relationship with water nutrient.

Prevalence of S. typhimurium isolated from fresh chicken samples collected from different local markets in Najaf province during April to October 2012.

Sanaa Ghali Jabur; Eman Mhamed Jar Allah

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 209-219

Salmonella typhimurium is one of most importance serovars associated with human disease and commonly reported from poultry in developing countries therefore this study amid to analysis S. typhimurium distribution in locally freshly chicken samples in Najaf province. A total of 1440 fresh chicken samples were collected from local markets in Najaf city during April to October 2012 to detect the prevalence of Salmonella typhimurium in fresh different parts of chicken. The results of S. typhimurium prevalence showed the gizzard chicken food sample was get highest percentage (43.45%) followed with liver (39.90%) where the meat appeared the lowest percentage (38.46%). The effect of season variation in liver samples was gave highest Prevalence of S. typhimurium in summer season that reached (46.42%) followed by it in autumn (32.85%) while the lowest Prevalence was shown in sprig 28.5% with differ between three season records. while in meat it was high spread in spring and autumn that reached to (64.28%) and (50%) respectively comparison with it in summer season that reduced (4.76%). In gizzard was observed in seasons of summer 49.18% and autumn (40.15%) where reduced in spring to (28.57%).

Identification of ESBL CTX-M-15 genes from isolates of urinary tract infections.

Zahid S.Aziz; Abbas Sh. J; Salman A. Addoos

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 220-236

The study aimed to evaluate the distribution of CTX-M genes, which coding for ,Extended Spectrum β- lactamases (ESBLs) which hydrolyzed the extended spectrum β- lactams .
Total of 800 urine samples taken from patients suffering from urinary tract infections were collected during the period from February to September from Hospitals in Al-Najaf province.
All samples were cultured on MacConkey agar , were the results revealed that 250 isolates were lactose fermentative versus to 50 isolates were lactose non fermentative.
The isolates succumbed to conventional tests (IMVC), Indol, Methyl red , Voges- Proskauer and Citrate utilization as well as motility test.
Lactose fermentative and non motile isolates were candidate to be confirmed by Vitek2 system. Initial screening tests by Disk Diffusion test and by MacConkey supplemented with 2 mg / liter of Ceftazidime had been conducted, the resultsof disk diffusion test revealed different resistance phenotypes as well as multi drug resistance patterns Ceftriaxone were found to be the most resistant antibiotics in our isolated bacteria with resistance of 100%. The next most resistant antibiotics were Ceftazidime (98.11%), followed by aztreonam (90.57%); and cefotaxime (90.27%). While the result of screening with Ceftazidime reported that 31/53(58.49%) of isolates were initially ESBLs producers.
The results of genotyping tests showed that out of 53 isolates which had been screened for the prevalence of bla CTX-M genes, 47(88.6%) were positive. Nucleotide sequence of bla CTX-M of amplicons (19, 20, 22, 23, 24) showed high identity (99%) with CTX-M-15 of NCBI-BLAST.
As concerning with protein sequence, the results showed high identity (98%) with reference protein of gene bank. The results of other protein sequences revealed great degree of identity reach to (100%) of identity.

Cytochrome P450 aromatase expression in men with urinary bladder carcinoma

Hanan D. Abbas; Arshad N. Al-Dujaily; Asaad A. Al-Janabi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 237-245

Objective:The goal of this work is to study the alterations in the Cytochrome P450 aromatase,and its role in pathogenicity of bladder cancer in biopsies of men who are initially diagnosed with this disease.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry staining (IHCS) was applied on biopsies taken from 42 men with bladder cancer , and other 38 benign considered as acontrol group to detect Cytochrome P450 aromatase.
Results:The results revealed a highly significant (P<0.05) level of Cytochrome P450 aromatase in patients in comparison with control group.
Conclusions:It was concluded from the results of the present study that Cytochrome P450 aromatase was good prognostic biomarker has important role in pathogenecity and progression of urinary bladder cancer in men ,and these results significantly correlate with the Objective:The goal of this work is to study the alterations in the Cytochrome P450 aromatase,and its role in pathogenicity of bladder cancer in biopsies of men who are initially diagnosed with this disease.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry staining (IHCS) was applied on biopsies taken from 42 men with bladder cancer , and other 38 benign considered as acontrol group to detect Cytochrome P450 aromatase.
Results:The results revealed a highly significant (P<0.05) level of Cytochrome P450 aromatase in patients in comparison with control group.
Conclusions:It was concluded from the results of the present study that Cytochrome P450 aromatase was good prognostic biomarker has important role in pathogenecity and progression of urinary bladder cancer in men ,and these results significantly correlate with the early stages of disease.
Recommendations : It may be recommended using of this biomarker inhibitor may be considered as a target for anticancer therapy
early stages of disease.
Recommendations : It may be recommended using of this biomarker inhibitor may be considered as a target for anticancer therapy

Semen volume and its correlation with reproductive hormones in azoospermic patients

Dr.Sahib Yahya AL-Murshidi; Dr. Ali Ibrahim Rahim; Dr.Saad Eddin Ghali al-Issawi; Dr.Hind Abdul khathem Al- Ibrahemi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 246-255

The study was aimed to find the relationship between semen volume and follicle stimulating hormone(FSH),lutiniezing hormone(LH),prolactin(PRL),and testosterone(T) in blood serum for Azoospermic patients. This study was included azoospermia(n=25) and normozoospermia (n=25) .semen volume and reproductive hormones(FSH,LH,Prolactin and testosterone) were assessed in both two groups .The results were showed a significant positive correlation between semen volume and testosterone hormone(r= 0.90 ) while it was revealed a significant negative correlation between semen volume and follicle stimulating hormone(r= - 0.93 ),lutiniezing hormone(r= - 0.95 ),and prolactin hormone(r= - 0.95 ) in azoospermic group . in Conclusion , The disturbance of reproductive hormones in azoospermic group affect semen volume may be because the effect these hormones on prostate growth. It is possible in future a study of the levels of reproductive hormones in first and second split of semen for azoospermia and normozoospermia .

Estimated levels of Interleukin-18 and Interleukin-8 in males infected with Trichomonas vaginalis in Al-Najaf province, Iraq.

Faheim M. Al.Shebly

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 257-262

The aim of this research for Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis by use wet amount smear and evaluate interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis; urine and blood specimens were collected from 88 men whom have visited the department of infertility at Al-Sadder medical city, Al-Zahra Hospital in Al-Najaf Province during the period from June till October, 2012. 20 healthy looking age matched men taken to serum tubes and serum was separated. Serum was used for evaluation of the IL-18 and IL-8 levels. The IL-18 and IL-8 levels were evaluated in serum using ELISA technique .T. vaginalis was isolated from 15 men with a prevalence rate 17.04% by using wet amount smear. The results revealed a significant increase in IL-18 and IL-8 in men infected with T. vaginalis in compared to control group.

Evaluation of Cryoglobulin Rheumatoid Factors concentration and Total IgG and IgA Levels Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

RaheemT.Almammory; Oruba. K. Al- Bermani; Abeer . F. Al- Rubeiae

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 263-270

Background: rheumatoid arthritis is a common autoimmune disease that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible (synovial) joints., The pathology of the disease process often leads other systemic complications, Many individuals with rheumatoid arthritis produce a group of auto –Ab, called rheumatoid factors and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA).
Materials and methods: from 58 rheumatoid arthritis patients , blood samples were collected and processed for manifestation on the rheumatoid factors , cryoglobulin,total IgG and IgA levelsanalyzed by ELISA, and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR).
Results: the present study demonstrates that the difference between concentrations of R.F in whole serum and cryoprecibitable R.F of the same rheumatoid arthritis patients was non significant.additionally slight elevation of the IgG level compared with healthy persons, while the increase level of IgA in serum of Reumatoide arthritis patients compared with those of health persons was statistically significant, as well as the increase of ESR level among patients group compared with the control sample was significant.
Conclusion:cryoglobulin level increase associated with severity grade of rheumatoid arthritis and the level of IgA refers to severity of the joints damage and complication of diseases .

Isolation and Detection of Moraxella catarrhalis from children Infected with Acute Otitis Media in Al-Kadhemiya Pediatric Hospital

Humam Kasem Hussein

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 271-282

Objectives: A study was carried out to assess isolation and detection of Moraxella catarrhalis(M. catarrhalis) isolates from 100 specimens received from Children at 1-3 years of age suffered with Acute Otitis Media (AOM) in Al-Kadhemiya Pediatric Hospital.
Methods: The identity of isolates was confirmed by staining method (Gram stain) , culturing, biochemical test(catalase, citrate utilization, indole production, urease production, motility, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer and DNase production) and Sensitivity test.
Results: from 100 samples, 8 isolates of M. catarrhalis were collected. The biochemical activities especially the DNase production, motility, methyl red and catalase were fixed as features of it.
All the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin (AMP), Penicillin (PEN) and Amoxicillin (AMX) because it has the ability to produce ß-lactamase. While the isolates were susceptible to Erythromycin (ERY),Tetracycline (TET) and Chloramphenicol (CLH).
Conclusion: This study showed that M. catarrhalis is one of the main bacterial agents that causing Acute Otitis Media (AOM). The production of DNase enzyme was the characteristic feature of it from others bacterial causing agents of AOM. Also most strains of M. Catarrhalis produce ß-lactamase, which make it resistant to many antibiotics like Ampicillin, Penicillin and Amoxicillin.

Optimization of Conditions for cellulase Secretion for Some soil Fungi in Vitro

Athraa Harjan Mushin; Fatima abed AL-Hussein; Mushin Hashem Resin

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 313-328

This study aimed to determine optimization of conditions for enzyme secretion from many soil isolated fungi, the fungal species was cultivated on CMC agar plates for 5 days, to test its cellulolytic ability. The inhibition Zone 5.1, 5 , 5 cm of A.oryzae , A.niger and A. terreus. while when using Mandels-Weber medium , the activity of enzyme increased to 6.61, 4.14 and 5.61) U/ ml respectively when using Corn cobs , Results showed that ,the best chemical pretreatment when using NaOH at 100C0 in 30min on Corn cobs .The total cellulase are reached to 1.63 , 1 and 1.21 U / ml when using A. oryzae, A.niger and A. terreus respectively to degrade after treatment , and Three fungal species were inoculated into Mandels-Weber medium and incubated at 30 C◦ for a period of 168 hours . The cellulase activity was measured at regular intervals. However, the Incubation time are similar all the fungi at 96 hours the maximum yield of activity were 2 , 1.62 and 1.79 U / ml respectively by A. oryzae, A.niger and A. terreus , and Production Fpase ,CMCase , ß-glucosidases at different temperatures on the production of cellulolytic enzymes was examined of culture media , the highest activity recorded 1.64, 1.41 and 1.49 U/ml , 1.61 , 1.43 and 1.51 U/ml and 30.86 , 25.76 and 28.44 U/ml respectively at 30C° when using Corn cobs as carbon source . The optimized media were prepared and determine the pH was set at different levels 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10; the three different cellulolytic enzyme activities were detected separately for different fungi at an initial pH 6. Results revealed that the concentration of substrate (Corn cobs) for enzymes in different fungi during fermentation as carbon source was 6%, The tested fungi were able to produce maximum activities of the enzymes ,its 2.28 , 2.25 and 2.40 U/ml for Fpase and 2.48 , 2.28 and 2.39 ) U/ml for CMCase were ( 42.34 , 36.65 and 39.87 ) U/ml for ß-glucosidases .
Finally, the nitrogen sources studied (KNO3 , (NH4)2SO4) in concentration ( 2, 4 , 6 ) % gave the highest production of all three main components of cellulase by fungi . The activity at concentration 6 % gave the highest activity for all fungi 1.92 , 1.51 and 1.80 U/ml and 1.89 , 1.63 and 1.72 U/ml respectively when using KNO3 and (NH4)2SO4 on Fpase . while, CMCase gave the highest activity in same nitrogen source were 2, 1.59 and 1.72 U/ml and 2.60 , 2.11 , 2.23 U/ml respectively when using nitrogen sources and ß-glucosidase gave activity 43.54 , 35.49 , 38.61 U/ml and 50, 39.28, 42.59 U/ml in same nitrogen source and concentration .On the other hand , The maximum activities of FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase obtained followed by NH4NO3 and (NH4)2PO4 gave little activities compared with nitrogen source .

Antibacterial effect of Cappariloside (C22H28N2O11) and Vitexlactam (C22H35NO4) alkaloids compounds isolation from Capparis spinosa roots & Vitex agnus-castus fruits.

Ahmad Abies; Diana Basim Abdul hameed; Mayada Farahan

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 313-326

The isolation of alkaloids compounds from Capparis spinosa roots and Vitex agnus-castus fruits as crystal yellowish white powder. The chemical and physical properties of isolated alkaloids compounds were studied by using thin layer chromatography (TLC), melting point (MP), ultraviolet spectrum (UV) and FTIR spectrum. The isolated alkaloids compounds are shown high antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, E. aeruginosa, S. viridans, and S. pneuomonia). The results explained broad spectrum antibacterial property of alkaloids compounds against all pathogenic bacteria.

Estimation of total serum fucose in patients with end-stage renal disease

Hussein Adnan Mohammed; Fawzi hassan zayr; Sabah Fadhil AL-Qurashy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 283-292

The objective of the study: is to compare between concentration of total serum fucose in normal healthy controls and patient with end-stage renal disease.
Design: cross-sectional study of patients with end-stage renal disease Setting: Al- Kut hospital Department of renal dialysis in Al- Kut city. Patients and Method:-This cross-sectional study incorporated patients with end-stage renal disease (October 2011 to September 2012) in Al- Kut hospital Department of renal dialysis.
Results: The patients were arranged into two groups, group 1 (normal healthy controls) and group 2(patients with end-stage renal disease). Regarding group 1 (which were 29 individual). Regarding group 2 which represents the patients with end-stage renal disease (there were 25patients).the concentration of total serum fucose was increased in patients with end-stage renal disease and also we found that there is positive relationship between the level of the total serum fucose and the serum creatinine and blood urea .
Conclusions: the level of total serum fucose increase in patients with end-stage renal disease and this level have positive relationship with level of serum creatinine and blood urea.

Antibacterial activity of Streptomyces spp. against extended spectrum beta lactamase bacilli isolated from Urine samples

Samer Mueen Khudhair Al-Hulu

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2015, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 327-331

Twenty soil samples were collected from Hilla city to detect Streptomyces spp. isolates. Cultural characteristics of isolates showed that, all isolates were gram positive, grey aerial mycelium, and yellow-green substrate mycelium when cultured on Yeast Malt Dextrose agar. Escherichia coli producing ESBL were detected. Antibacterial activity of Streptomyces spp. isolates against ESBL E.coli isolates was recoded. The results showed that Streptomyces spp.2 was most active against ESBL isolates with inhibition zone 16 mm against ESBL.1 and 12 mm against ESBL.2. Streptomyces spp.2 was selected for extraction of antibacterial agent .The antimetabolite crude was extracted. Results showed that the crude extract of Streptomyces spp.2 was had antibacterial activity against ESBL isolates with inhibition zone 18 mm against ESBL.1 and 15 mm against ESBL.2.