Effect of Organic Manure, tuber weight and ascorbic acid spraying on some tubers chemical components of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in sandy soil

M. A. Abo-Hinna; M. A. Abo-Hinna

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 0-0

Field experiment was conducted in AL-Najaf Governorate during the season of 2011 in two cultivations (spring and autumn) .The aim was to study the effect of different conc. of organic manure, different weights of tuber seeds and Ascorbic acid spraying on tuber content of N, P, K, total soluble solid and ascorbic acid on potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Proventa.
The experiment included 24 treatments, i.e. the interactions of four levels of organic manure (0, 75,100 and 125 kg/furrow), three tuber weights at cultivation (big, medium and small) and two concentrations of ascorbic acid (0 and 150 mg/l., sprays were done twice during the season with 15 days interval, that was done on 45 days from cultivations.
Factorial conducted with Randomized Complete Block Design (R. C. B. D.) was used with three replications.
Means were statistically compared according to Duncan's Multiple Range test at probability of 0.05.
Results indicated that the use of different levels of organic manure had significant effect on most of chemical parameters N, P, K, total soluble solids and amount of vitamin C content in tubers. 125 kg/furrow gave the highest means for the measured parameters for both cultivations compared with control treatment which gave the least values for these parameters. On the other hand, tuber size treatment had a significant effect on the most of chemical parameters that surpassed plants produced from big size tuber compared to that plant produced from small and medium tubers.
Ascorbic acid spraying had significant effects on most of chemical parameters compared with plants with out spraying of ascorbic acid. The interactions among the three factors were showed presence of significant effects on the most of chemical studied parameters for both seasons.

Study the Antimicrobial Drug Resistance to some Microbes Isolates from Skin and Blood in Burn Patients

Ahmed Abdul-Ameer Mohammed; Mahdi Hussain Muheel; Fatima Abdul-Hussain Mujbel

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 15-23

A total of (170) Skin swabs were taken after 72 and 144 hours of burn injury and (45) blood specimens for culture from (85) patients with burn size (10-90%). This study showed that cases of infection are increased with the increasing of stay period in Hospital and burn size. It has been found that Gram negative bacteria are more frequent than Gram positive type and yeast. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent species among microbial isolates. Besides, it has been shown through this study that the antibiotics: Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin, Norfloxacin, and Imipenem are the most influential on Gram negative bacterial isolates and Chloramphenicol, Vangomycin and Nitrofurantion on Gram positive bacterial isolates. Furthermore, Amphotericin B and Clotrimazole on yeast.

Estimation of the oxidative stress status and lipid profile in ischemic heart disease in male patients

Arshad N. Al-Dejal; Hussein K. Al- Hakeim; Suaad M. J. Al-Hadrawy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 24-36

Objective: The present study is carried out to the measurement of lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA) in addition to estimate the lipid profile parameter both in control subjects and in ischemic heart diseases (IHD) patients.
Methodes: Sixty eight patients with ischemic heart diseases including stable angina (SA), unstable angina (UA) and myocardial infarction (MI) (aged 40-69 years) were involved in the present study during their admission to Al- Sader Teaching Hospital / Al- Najaf Al- Ashraf. Age matched twenty two healthy men were included as control group. All blood samples were taken early morning from fasting subjects. Ischemic heart diseases patients were divided into smoker and nonsmoker groups, to observe the effect of smoking on lipid peroxidation in coronary heart disease patients.
The measured parameters in serum included: total cholesterol (TC) and it's different fractions, triglycerides (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA).
Results: Malondialdehyde and lipid parameters were found significantly high (P< 0.05) with the exception of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was not significantly different among groups in ischemic heart diseases patients. Smokers with coronary heart disease showed significantly increased (P< 0.05) malondialdehyde levels as compared to nonsmokers with coronary heart disease.
Conclusion: Malondialdehyde elevation in IHD patients indicating a possible role of oxidative stress processes in the pathophysiology of the heart diseases. Smoking has adverse effects on lipid profile and MDA.

Investigation of parasitic contamination in Kufa river water-Al-Najaf province

Ammar Adil Rashid; Sinan Qais Khayoon; Rasha Amer Nouri Al- Tufaili

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 37-48

This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and potential for human infectivity of parasites in Kufa river. Samples were collected from three stations across Kufa river from July (2012) to February (2013) at approximately half monthly intervals.
The first two stations represent the location of the most frequent sources for water pollution: Station where sewage and drainage water have discharged and station of slaughterhouse where the animal's residues shed to water. The third station was the place where Najaf city supply with water Liquefaction of water.
There was a trend to higher concentration and more frequent incidence of parasites in the spring and fall, but positive samples were found in all seasons. Distribution of parasitic contamination in station one, determining the incidence and prevalence of human enteric protozoan parasites such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum , Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica , Balantidium coli, in different parasitic contaminated samples will provide baseline data against the risk factors associated with waterborne pathogenic protozoa transmission.
In the second station worms are the most common distributed parasites which transmitted via water to humans, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichura, and Taenia saginata, and Fasiola hepatica while the third station were also positive but for protozoa (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidum parvum). These are water transmitted protozoa.

Mutation analyses of bilirubin UGT1A1gene in Neonatal that Associated With Hyperbilirubinemia in Al-Najaf province

Rand Muhammed Abdul-Hussain Al-Hussaini

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 0-0

The objectives of this study were to determine the frequencies of the mutations in the bilirubin UDP glycosyltransferase _UGT1A1 gene which associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a group of Iraqi babies in Al-Najaf province and a group of normal controls and to compare the frequencies of this mutation between these groups. The newborns with hyperbilirubinemia in this study were 92 newborns with a total bilirubin level of more than 15 mg/dl serum in the first 7 days of life. They showed no blood group and Rh incompatibility, and no clinically detectable pathology except for hyperbilirubinemia. While control group consists from 20 healthy newborns without hyperbilirubinemia all were without clinical manifestation of any disease. This study was carried out in the laboratory of biochemistry in Al-Zahraa Pediatric and Maternal Teaching Hospital and laboratory of molecular biology in the Department of Biology in the Faculty of Sciences – Kufa University, during the period from July 2013 through March 2014.
The distribution of hyperbilirubinemia according to gender showed higher rates in male newborns than female newborns with a significant difference (P < 0.05) between them. The estimated incidence of hyperbilirubinemia increased in the age group (1d-3d) but without a significant difference in comparison with the other groups. The mutation analyses of bilirubin UDP glycosyltransferase _UGT1A1 gene, revealed that the genotypic distribution for G71R mutation among the hyperbilirubinemia group (92) has been found that 11 of 92 newborn had the G71R mutation (heterozygotes), which mean that the UGT1A1 gene mutation was a possible risk factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Iraq.

The effect of growth hormone and thyroid hormones in short stature children male aged 5th years

Alaa Shaker Al-Nahi; Suaad Mohammed Joda

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 60-67

Linear growth occurs in 3 stages, During fetal and early infant life, growth is largely regulated by nutrition, during childhood by growth hormone (GH) and during puberty by GH and sex steroids. Short stature may be the result of a condition causing growth failure with a growth rate below the appropriate growth velocity for age and lower of thyroid hormones.
The present study showed there was role of thyroid hormones and growth hormone in short stature problems that underlying cause and increased risk for reduced body mass index. Forty children divided into 2 groups were studied. Group I (short stature) consisted of 20 patients (aged 5 years). Group II (control) include 20 children aged 5 years. Hormonal estimation was done including GH,T3, T4, TSH, also study BMI in both groups.
Hormonal profile: There was a significant decrease in serum levels of GH, T3 and TSH (P<0.0001) and insignificant change in the T4 between short stature and control( P= 0.05). also in this study showed positive correlation(r=0.561, P<0.01) between Growth and T3 hormones and their effect on short stature.

Beneficial Effects of Garlic-Vinegar Extract Against Some of Tobacco Smoking Toxicities

Ameerah M. Ali Al-hassan; Ali M A. Alkufaishi; Entisar J. Al Mukhtar; Noor J. Taleb

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 68-85

Background: Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including coronary heart disease, pulmonary disease, and neoplastic disorders. Free radical-mediated oxidative stress is believed to play a central role in tobacco smoke toxicity. Many medicinal plants including Allium sativum (garlic) contain large amounts of antioxidants that can scavenge many substances which are responsible for oxidative stress-induced diseases. This study was performed to investigate the protective effect of garlic vinegar extract against some of smoking toxicities.

Numerical analysis of whole cell protein of local Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from human blood

Layla Abdul-Hamed Said; Manal Khalid Muhamad; Sinaa Mahdi Shakir

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 86-107

Twenty nine isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) were obtained from the blood of patients suspected to be infected with typhoid fever. Isolates were biotyped, serotyped, antibiotyped, and characterized by SDS-PAGE of whole cell protein profile (WCPP).
Numerical analysis by use of Jaccard's coefficient (Sj) and UPGMA clustering of the WCPP of the isolates were performed. All isolates were serologically confirmed and found to belong to polyvalent A-60 and monovalent 9, and were belonged to two different biotypes, and to 12 antibiotypes. The bacterial WCPP indicated that the individual isolate had 20 to 26 protein bands ranging in their molecular weight from 14 KDa (kilodaltons) to 400. The numerical analysis of WCPP revealed three major distinct clusters (A, B, C), produced at (Sj 60%), only two isolates remains clusters, and were linked to them at lower levels.

Interaction between Cd & K in Some Growth Parameters and Peroxidase Activity of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentumL.) Seedlings

Abdullah I. Shaheed; Rihab E. Kadhim

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 108-119

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Al-Wejdan) seedlings at 35 days old supplied with CdCl2 (0, 1, 10, 50, &100 mg/kg soil), KCl (0, 20, 40, &60 mg/kg soil) as well as the combinations between these concentrations. Seedlings at 65 day old showed increasing in stem length and diameter by a combination Cd, 100+K, 60 significantly. Whereas, no significant changes in leaves numbers. Seedlings at 95 day old showed no significant changes in stem length or it diameter whereas, leaves numbers increased by combinations Cd,50+K,20 and Cd,50+K,40. Leaf area was stimulated by K (60mg), Cd (100mg) and by many combinations. There was inhibition in chlorophyll content at Cd (100mg) and at a combination (Cd,1+K,20). Peroxidase activity was inhibited by K at (20 & 60 mg), Cd at 50mg, with all combinations contain K (20mg) except a combination Cd,1+K,20 and increased by Cd at 1mg. There were no significant changes at another combinations comparing with control.

Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on some biochemical indices of liver and kidney function in male albino rats.

BushraAbbas Alzubade

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 120-130

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of flowersof Hibiscus sabdariffa onliver and kidneyfunction in male albino rats.Thirty male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups,six rats for each group.The extract was administered orally in doses of 0 ,25, 50,100 and 200mg/kg body weight for 28days.Blood samples were taken for biochemical assaysThe result showed There was no significant difference(P< 0.05) in the liver and kidney to body weight ratio ,levels of ALP, AST, ALT, Directbilirubin, Total bilirubin,Sodium, Potassium,Calcium,Bicarbonate, Albumin, Chloride, Urea, Uric acid, creatinine and total protein of the treated rats when compared with the control.This study suggested that the aqueous extract of H. sabdariifawas nothepatoxicand nephrotoxic effects at the doses administered.

Histological and ultrastructural studies on the liver of mice after treatment with single dose of LD50 Naja naja snake venom

Taha Shawi Morad; Maysoon .A. Ahmad; Najat Mutar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 131-143

Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in liver tissues following intraperitoneal (i.p.) single LD50 of Naja naja snake venom (0. 055μg/g) body weight were studied. Tissues were obtained for histological and ultrastructural studies at 3 h and 24 h time intervals following injection of venom.
Material and methods: A total of 18 adult male albino mice were used; divided into three groups; each containing 6 rats: First group: as control.Second and third group: treaded with i.p. single LD50 of Naja naja snake venom (0. 055μg/g) body weight , sacrificed after 3 and 24h respectively.The liver of the control and treated mice were dissected out for histological and ultrastructural examinations .
Results: Histopathological and ultra structural degenerative effects in the form of vacuolar degeneration, hydropic degeneration , lymphocytic infiltration , Kupffer cells hyperplasia , mitochondria were condensed darkly stained in most of the hepatic cells, lipid droplets were noticed in venom treated mice liver. Karyolysis and karyorrhexis were also seen. . Conclusion: snake-envenoming causes several disorders such as intrahepatic hemorrhage , liver necrosis and hepatotoxicity.

Spatial Variation of Composition and Distribution of Fish in Two Sites on Euphrates River ,Middle of Iraq

Jasim M. Salman; Mayson M. Salah; Dhurgham A. Al-Sultany

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 144-153

The paper deal with composition and distribution of fish in two sites from Euphrates River-middle . of Iraq between Hindiya barrage and AL-Kifll city.
The study carried out monthly sampling from Oct.2009 to Sept.2010.
A total of (1558) individuals belonging to (19) species and (5) families were collected in study periods from study sites .The results showed high number in AL-kifil site (968 fishes)more than AL-Hindia barrage.(590 fishes).Most abundance species due to the family cyprinodae (15 species) .The species recorded in study area range between rare species (Alburnus caeruleus,Mystus pelusius)and dominate species such as (Barbus luteus;Crassius auratus; Cyprinus carpio and Liza abu).The highest values of diversity corresponding to the samples from station 1. The differences in the species richness , relative abundance ,and mean fish weight were also indicative of distinctive characteristics between these fish assemblages in study area.

Isolation of Salmonella from Chicken Cleaning Machines in Al-Najaff and Al-Hilla Provinces

Hameed M; Zaitoon Abd; Alhaam Abbas

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 154-160

Chicken meat and its derivatives are among the foodstuffs considered by environmental health authorities to present the highest risks to the public.
A total of 50 samples were collected from different chicken cleaning machines, and tested for the present of Salmonella.
Environmental was carried out in Kauffman’s tetrathionate broth and isolation on Salmonella – Shigella agar, Brilliant – green agar and (15 ) isolates were classified as Salmonella and this isolation pattern of contamination suggests a problem in transfer of Salmonella from chicken meat to the public.

A Study of Osteoprotegerin in Diabetic Patients as Indicator for Myocardial Infarction

Ikhlass Ali Hussein; Ismael K. Ajam; Abdulhussein Mahdi Al-Jebory

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 161-173

The study included (180) subject (89 males, 91 females), classified into 4 study groups: (49) diabetic patients (21 males, 28females) were attended to the diabetic and endocrinology center at Al-Sader medical city in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf, and registered in the center as type 2 diabetic mellitus patients (DM) group. (40) patients (23 males, 17 females) attended to the coronary care unit (CCU) at Al-Sader medical city in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf and diagnosed as having myocardial infarction (they all showed S-T elevation) (MI) group. (46) patients (21 males, 25 females) attended to the coronary care unit (CCU) at Al-Sader medical city in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf and diagnosed as having myocardial infarction (they all showed S-T elevation), and previously diagnosed as type 2 diabetic patients (DMMI) group. (45) healthy subjects (24 males, 21 females)vas (control) group. all patients and control subjects were aged between 40-75 years. All of them were non obese (Body Mass Index < 30).Samples collected during the period from May 2011 till February 2012. The measured parameters include: fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c %), lipid profile (LDL, TG, HDL, vLDL, atherogenic Index), serum Osteoprotegrin (OPG). The results obtained were:
There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in FBS in DM and DMMI groups. A significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of HbA1c in all patients (DM, MI, and DMMI groups) compared with the control. Lipid profile parameters and atherogenic index were significantly (P<0.05) higher in all patients than healthy individual. Serum Osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels elevates significantly (P<0.05) in all patients compared with the control group, the MI patients showed the highest OPG levels in all patients. Also there were no significant difference between males and females in serum OPG levels. In DM and DMMI groups serum OPG levels were significantly higher in elderly patients (aged more than 60 years) than patients aged 40-50 years. In conclusion, serum OPG levels were higher in diabetic patients suffering from myocardial infarction, so this parameter could be a risk marker for MI in diabetic patients.

The antibacterial & antibiofilm activity of Punica granatum peel aqueous extract against some oral pathogen

wafaa S. Al-wazni; Send Al-dwri; Mayyada F. Darweesh

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 174-180

This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial & antibiofilm activity of Punica granatum peel aqueous extract against oral pathogens from patients suffering from gingivitis and dental carrier. These isolates were 58.8% gram positive (Lactobacillus spp. ,Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aurus) and 41.2% gram negative (Klebseilla pneumonia and pseudomonas aeruginosa). The susceptibility of these different bacterial species toward the aqueous extract of this plant was applied by using well diffusion agar method. The results were compared with each other and with selected antibiotic ciprofloxacin as positive control. Results showed that aqueous extract of Punica granatum had antibacterial activity against all isolates, on which the diameter of inhibition zone at concentration 200 mg/ml of this extract was 24mm for Lactobacillus spp and 23 mm for Staph aureus and P.aeruginosa, while the Streptococcus spp. was only 18 mm. . Also antibiotic sensitivity test was done for these isolates towards locally used drugs which ordinarily used to treat gingivitis and dental carrier. The results showed a resistance for most of these antibiotic and illustrated that most isolated bacteria undergo decreasing in biofilm formation activates after incubated with MIC of aqueous extract , this changing in biofilme formation activity for isolated bacteria was determined due to the average of optical density (O.D) at 540 nm.

Effect of Hot Aqueous and Ethanol Alcohol Extracts of Citrus limon (L.) Burm Seeds on Some Hormonal Levels and Fertility of Female Albino Rats

al Hussein Abod Al-Khafaji; Khama; Arshad Nori Ghani Al-Dujaili; Ahmad Abies Motar Al-Sultanee

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 0-0

This study was conducted in animals and plants laboratories and animal house of the Department of biology in Faculty of Science / University of Kufa for the period from 25/09/2013 to 20/3/2014 to investigate the effect of hot aqueous and ethanol alcohol extracts of Citrus limon L. Burm seeds on some hormonal levels and fertility in female albino rats (Ratus ratus L.)
In this study 60 rats were used aged 8 to 12 weeks and daily dosage orally by concentrations (250 , 500) mg/kg of body weight of both extracts for two periods (10 , 20) day was given..
The current study revealed the occurrence of a significant decrease (p <0.05) in the level of each of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and significant increase (p <0.05) in the level of estradiol hormone (E2) for both concentrations and dosing periods and two extracts compared with the control group.
The concentration 500 mg/kg of body weight and dosing period 20 day of ethanol alcohol extract showed more significant effect (p <0.05) on all hormonal levels in current study compared with the concentration 250 mg/kg of body weight and dosing period 10 day of same extract and also with two concentrations 500 and 250 mg/kg of body weight and two dosing periods 10 and 20 day of hot aqueous extract of lemon seeds.
The fertility test conducted that rat female treated by concentration 500 mg/kg of body weight for 20 days of both extracts did not show sperms in vaginal smears obtained from them only after a period of time in addition to that it suffered from the delay of pregnancy through daily monitoring for a period of 40 days thus, a decrease occurred in both the percentage of pregnancy and the numbers of fetuses in treated female compared with control group for both concentrations. The ethanol extract of the plant lemon seeds was the most efficient as antifertility in female rats compared hot aqueous extract.

Prevalence of Anovulation in Subfertile Women in Kerbala 2012, A descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

Mousa Mohsen Ali; Wasan Ghazi; HayderAamerAbboud

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2014, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 196-203

Ovulation is the result of a maturation process that occurs in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis and is orchestrated by a neuroendocrine cascade terminating in the ovaries. Any alteration results in a failure to release a mature ovum, leading to anovulatory cycles. Anovulation may manifest in a variety of clinical presentations, from luteal insufficiency to oligomenorrhea. Anovulation is not a disease but a sign, in much the same way that polycystic ovaries are the manifestation of a much larger disease process.