Comparative bacteriological study of different sites on Tigris and Uphrities rivers

Jemeel Yousif; Angham Jasim M.Ali; Abbas; Dr. fadel Abed Al

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-9

study was established to determine and indicate some biological analysis viz; Aerobic bacteria total count (Abtc), Total coli form (Tc), Fecal coli form(Fc), Fecal streptococci(Fs), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella Spp for river Tigris and Uphrities rivers water. In addition water chemical measurements have been carried out, viz;total dissolved solid (TDS). Samples were taken from study sites. Tow groups of samples have been taken from each site during the the hot season.The results indicated count that there was an increasing in the investigated bacteria in raw water . The results also showed that there was almost equal in total coli form, fecal streptococci and fecal coli form in the study sites in the hot season .The numbers of pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria was higher in hot season, However the correlation coefficient between total dissolved solid (TDS) were highly significant negative. The increase of T.D.S decrease the bacteria in the investigated site.

Study the effects of toxic mushrooms also Bipolaris holmii in some systems vital to the male rat White

Suaad Waheed; sami Abd Al-redha

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 10-18

The included this studying of known on ability B.holmii to production mycotoxins were effect thought studying in liver system in white rat males .The results indicated that fungus produced one to phenolic toxic compound that was contained on phenolic cycle with aldehyid methyl group .The toxic compound that caused influence of physiological parameters of white blood cells ( W.B.Cs) were increased intreated blood animal of dose (1) mg/Kg to (4900) cell/mm3 .In the same time of the level of Hb also decreased to 100gm/mL , that dose caused increased for enzymes normal level which reach GPT , GOT to (33 , 31.2 ) IU/L in respectively .That comparated with control treatment that reached white Blood cell and Hb with enzymes level that (3100) cell/mm3 , (13) gm/mL, and (6.4 , 7.7 ) IU/L in respectively .The animal were treated by with increased doses a compounding the count of white blood cells were decreased in P.C.V that reach (46 ) % in (1) mg/ Kg .In addition for sever toxic influence in some organic animal tissue and represented of caused between vascular congestion and central vascular adhesive in liver and accumulation of inflammatory cells due to liver damage .The Section was gaved showed from white rat males treatment by phenolic extract compound from B.holmii that presented pathology changing that represented of analysis villi in small intestines and atrophy acompared with vill dise function .

Bacteriocin activity investigation of Bacillus circulans in vivo and ecological factors tolerance

Dr. Hakj Abdul Abass Essa

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 19-31

The study aimed to investigation and identification on antagonism activity of Bacillus circulans filtrates against causative bacteria E.coli, 1n vivo.
Throught the estimation of viable cells of urinary tract infection bacteria in urine and lung tissues of experimental mice , Inhibitory activity of Bacterial concentrated filtrate was investigated against E.coli bacteria .Results obtained may be summarized as follows :
The result showed that the Bacillus circulans filterate (C2) resist to high acidity and bile salt (30 %) during 24 hours . and 60 c.
Concentrated filtrate of Bacillus circulans showed a good antagonism activity against bacteria , when given to mice before and after infection, noticed decrease in viable count of E.coli shown in urine from (1.3 x 105) cell / ml to (1.3 x 101) of treated mice with filtrate as compared with infected mice without treated by filtrate. In addition to decrease in viable count of this bacteria in kidney tissues from (4x 105) cell / g to (1.7 x103) cell / g without appearance of any growth in filtrate treated .
LD50 of concentrate bacteria filtrate when 108. So is a consider as safety treatment if given as a therputic doses .

The antagonism activity investigation of Bacillus circulans against some bacteria causing urinary tract infection

Thefaf hamed A; Al-Sahib; Dr. Mahdi Hussain M. Al- Ammar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 32-45

The study aimed to investigation and identification on antagonism activity of Bacillus circulans filtrates against causative bacteria ofUTI , which represented by E.coli, Proteus mirabilis Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Klebsielle pneumonia .
200 urine samples of female suffering fromUTI in were collected and suspected bacterial causative agent were isolated , there identification throughout cultural ,microscopical and biochemical characterization ,moreover ,the susceptibility to antibiotics were tested in order to select a resistance one from each bacterial species ..One isolated (C2) possessing high inhibitory activity against that bacteria were chosen for the further study that the antagonism activity of bacterial filtrates were investigated in the soild and common growth media.
Resistance of the chosen (C2) isolated to various level of pH and bile salt for different periods of times was studied.Results obtained may be summarized as follows :
Regarding bacteria causing UTI (200) isolates ,they are distributed as (74) cases E.coli ,(24)cases P. mirabilis,(30) cases Staph. saprophyticus ,( 52)cases K. neumoniae were obtained ,they different in their resistance to antibiotics used .The result showed that the B. circulans (C2) resist to high acidity and bile salt (30 %) during 24 hours .Also,the concentration filtrate with ammonium sulphate and filtrate separated by chlorophorm were high activity against test bacteria ,the inhibitory zone in( E.coli, Staph. saprophyticus, P. mirabilis , K. pneumoniae )were (20,18,14,8) , (19,16,14,6) respectively compound with other compounds.

Identifying bacterial etiology and patterns of drug sensitivity to inflammation of the middle ear, chronic exudative when the kids in the city of Hilla

Hanan Salman

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 46-53

The study is include collect 50 cotton swab from discharging ( pus) of children infected with chronic suppurative otitis media who attended to autolarygology unit at Al- Hilla general teaching hospital from April to Octobar 2010 , mostly of them are males 58 % and 42 % females , there ages ranging between 6 months – 15 years . The infection rate is high 64 % with bacterial causes as fellow : Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the first in isolation rate 43.75 % fallowed by Staphyloccous aureus 31.25 % then klebsiella spp. 12.5 % , Proteus mirabilis 9.38 % and one mixed infection by Staphylococcus aureus + Candida albicans 3.12 % . Suscptibility tests were done for common bacterial causes Psudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were shown highly resistance to antibiotics Gentamycin , Trimethoprim , Ampicillin and Vncomycin . Psudomonas aeruginosa is sensitive to Imipenem and Amikasin while Staphylococcus aureus is shown an obivously sensitive to Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid , Imipenem and Amikasin .

Physiological studies on Macrophomin phaseolina (tassi) Goid isolates from different Hosts and their pathogenicity for Okra seedling

Prof. Dr. Majeed M. Dewan; Ahmad Mohammad Hussain

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 54-67

The results showed that the Macrophomin phaseolina (tassi) Goid fungus was isolated from Okra , Sun flower , Cowpea , Sesame , Melon , Potato , Dedonia and Oleander plants . The isolates of M. phaseolina gave different morphological characters like the mycelia growth and sclerotial formation , The diameter growth of okra2 isolates was 8.5 cm in the third day from the inculoation at 27 + 2 c .It was found the sunflower 2 isolate of M. phaseolina produced a highest number of sclerotia on P.D.A. . The sclerotia numbers to above isolate were 100 , 188 and 244 sclrotia in third , forth and fifth day respectively . The isolates of M. phaseolina differed in the pathogenicity on the germination of Okra seeds . It was found the Okar2 isolate gave a high effect on planting pathogenicity while the lowest was by the oleander isolate.The antagonism of Al-Tahadi and Austarallan isolates of T.harzianum and Emericella nidulans against M. phaseolina showed differeat level of antagonisms. The antagonism distance of Al-Tahadi , Austarallan isolates and E.nidulans were 1.8 , 2.3 and 2.2 cm . The Austarallan isolate of T.harzianum gave ahigh ability to cover all the M. phaseolina colony by the parasitism on the pathogenic fungus .The best diameter growth and sclerotia formation were in 30 c while the growth and sclerotia formation were stopped in 0 and 50C . The study proved that the best diameter growth of M. phaseolina was in distilled water( 8.5 cm) and the best sclerotia formation was in level 10 ds . The best PH was 6.5 to produce best growth and number of sclerotia .The growth and sclerotia formation were increased in dark condition to reach 8.5 cm and 91.6 sclerotia respectively while the alternate dark and light condition gave 7.75 cm , 70 sclerotia respectively whereas the continous light treatment gave 2.25 cm , 29. 5 sclerotia respectively.

Effect of HoneyBee and Date syrup on inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium spp against some Pathogenic bacteria

Raghad A.L. Abdul Razag; Nibras N.Mahmood; Jehan A.S. Salman

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 68-76

The effect of honey Bee and date syrup on the activity of Bifidobacterium spp against some pathogenic bacteria included : Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobactor baumanii, and Aeromonas hydrophila was studied by adding (1,3 or 5) % of a honey and date syrup to culture media, and compared with inhibitory activity of unconcentrated and concentrated Bifidobacterium spp filtrate. The results showed that the honeyBee and date syrup(1,3 or 5)% enhanced the inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium spp more than the unconcentrated filtrate against the pathogenic bacteria with significant differences, and when used the honeyBee and date The effect was higher than the concentrated filtrate with significant differences against S. marcescens and A. hydrophila while non significant differences against S. aureus, A. baumanii

Remnants of the employment in the manufacturing of cement plants Msthoudrahioa of bacteria Bacillus subtilis

gufran fleeh

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 77-85

The aim of this study to the possibility of employing waste cement plants in the manufacturing Msthoudrahioa of vaccine bacteria Bacillus subtilis for use as pesticides and fertilizers vital in improving agricultural production and showed the results of preliminary experiments that the material remnants of cement did not have significant negative effects in Namwabaktrella used in the manufacture of Almsthoudraz reached the lowest rate of the number of the cells of bacteria B.subtilis 3.7 × 1011 unit configured colony / g compared with control amounting to 10 × 1011 unit configured colony / gm when the use of such waste by 4 g / to Trost transplantation , by Akhrlm not waste industrial Tatherma in germination rate Bdhurenbat wheat when used by 10 g / kg soil reaching germination rate of 80% compared with control amounting to 82.6 % and the fresh weight of shoots of plants wheat maintained normal rates compared with control , and the case applies to the rate of chlorophyll a , where never a significant decrease of the value of chlorophyll a in plants growing in soils the container on the ratio of 10 g / kg of industrial waste, and results showed the stages of manufacturing Almsthoudralehioa of vaccine bacteria that central extract maize was suitable for Namwabaktrella as the rate of cell numbers 5.1 × 108 unit configured colony / ml compared to the central nutrient broth amounting to 6.4 × 107 unit configured colony / ml , as results also showed appropriate material remnants of cement as a carrier of the bacteria, especially when used at a rate of 100 ml amid extract corn as a medium zymogenic Mnmy by bacteria per 100 g of material remnants of cement , or by (1:1) . gave this percentage numbers of bacteria reached 2.2 × 108 units configured colony / g , and the results proved assess the efficiency Almsthoudralehioa manufacturer of these bacteria that Dhukdrh to withstand a storage period of six Ochehrdon that loses its effectiveness vital as the average number of units effective at the beginning of production for the bacteria, 9.3 × 109 unit configured colony / g and become those numbers after Mrorsth Ochehrmn Storage 8.1 × 109 unit configured colony / g , and had Msthoudrfalah high in inhibition Nmwalaftran Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum at the center of PDA and fully 100% by Akhrothbt Ochtbaralslama health Msthoudralehioa the absence of any Atharmah on the health of animals Alveralabad this confirms the safety of the product .

Bacteriological Etiology Investigation Of Mastitis In Lactating She – Camels

Hakj Abdul Abass Essa

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 86-90

The present study was conducted on fifty Lactating she camels. The isolation of pathogenic bacteria from (72%) for total milk samples taken from lactating she-camels. California test was carried out , tested animals were divided into four groups according to pathological cases. The results of (group 1) were revealed that eight she – camels suffering from chronic mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and tow cases by Corynebacterium-pyogene.
While the (group2) Includes ten she -camels, these she – camels suffering form acute mastitis , the bacterial isolate were, pasturelant hemolytica , and Streptococcu agalactia . The (group3) includes eighteen she – camels, the tissue of the mammary gland were normal and this group gave positive results for California test these she- camels were infected withsubclinical mastitis , the bacterial isolate were Staphlococcous epidermdis , Esherichia coli. While the (group4) includes fourteen she –camel, never isolated any type of bacteria .

Effect of age in semen quality for normozoospermic men

muhsen kadeum

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 91-98

Forty semen samples of normozoospermic men were examined samples divided according to age from 20- 50 year and above . The result showed significant decrease (P<0.01) of semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility percent and sperm grade activity, while the result showed significant increase (P<0.01) of liquefaction time too no significant effect in normal sperm morphology percent. In conclusion, the age has important role of effect on sperm and semen parameters that may be related with men ability for fertilization.

Epidemiological parasite Giardia lamblia in the villages and market Almamierh Doohan study the effect of the powder with raw fruits of pomegranate peel Punica granatum his injuries in the pilot for cats

saady muhammad; maher ali; huraa sabah

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 99-109

In period between 1/3/2010 to1/3/2011 we study the effect of Punica granatum L. fruit peel powder in cats that laboratory infected with Giardia lamblia, The idea of this project came from the high number of patient that came from Al maamera and Dohan market village in Babylon Governorate. We examine the patients according to age and sex. We collect the cats feces in these villages in a period of one year. Direct and a the result shows that Punica granatum L. powder have al positive effect in treating the infected cats that divided into groups also the number of animals that cure is proportionally have increased with amount of dose.The fourth group have a faster and high healing percentage in contrast to other groups. We found that the group (6-12) have a high infection rate in both sexes (37.7%), the total infection rate (23.55%) (24.79%) males, 22.46 female, the summer months (July) have the greater infection rate with cats feces from home roofs and gardens (56.25%).

Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Allium porrum L. on the Male Reproductive System of Rats (Rattus rattus )

Azhar Shya Younis Al-Busasy; Saad Jebara Al-Musawy; Muhsen C. Abbas

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 110-116

This experimentwas used 35 rats .The research was aimed to asses the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Allium porrum L. on the fertility of males rats. And the males rats were divided into three groups . Administrated by different concentrations (200,400,800) mg/kg from each extract orally for (50) days one dose every 48hours to study the parameters of fertility that compared with control group.Treatment with Allium porrum L. extracts led to an increase in the testicular weight and epididimal weight for all extract concentrations and to both kinds of extracts . and alcoholic extract at concentration of (800) mg/km was more significant than the other concentration. A significant increase in the total sperms count , and significant decrease in the percentage of dead and abnormal sperms .

efect of NAA , GA3 on physical and chemical characteristics of local apple fruits

Shemmeryi; Wasan Hamza Mezial AL

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 117-122

This study was carried out in a private orchard at AL-Abbasyia . Najaf during the growing of season 2010 on the local apple fruit c.v . Red summer . The trees were sprayed with three concentrations of NAA(50 , 75 and 100 ) mg / L , GA3 (100 ,125 and 150 ) mg / L after 50 days from full bloom stage . Fruits were picked after 120 days from full bloom . The results indicated that length , diameter , weight , firmness and humidity of fruits increased with increase concentration of NAA, GA3 . The substanus reduced the percentage of cracking , dropping , T.S.S , acidity and Vitamin C of fruits. There was significant differences between these treatments .The treatments of higher concentration of Grofalcs 300 mg /L and Stavals 200 mg / L gave the best results of studied characteristics .

Extraction and purification of some compounds Algulwadah Alandoulih raw mushroom genus Psilocybe Mushroom

muhammad abdulla; kareem taleb

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 123-128

This work was conducted in 2009 to 2010 to extracted and purification of some alkaloids compound( Psilocin, psilocybin and Baeocystin) from Mushroom( Psilocybe bohemica ) and the content of these compounds were done by Uv-Spectrophotometer at 250 nm , This study include alcohol extraction by using four types of Solvents ( ethanol ,methanol , ethanol +methanol and Acetic acid). Dragendorff and Mayer method were used to test alkaloids. The result revealed that , the high value of psilocybin were found in methanol solvent in compare with other alkaloids compounds, and showed that increased in Psilocin contents in mixture of methanol + ethanol) solvents in compare with other alkaloids compounds, and decreased in Baeocystin contents in all solvents .

Comparative study of Procynidine Content in Leaves, Seeds and Steams of Vitis Vinifera L .during tow phases of growth

kareem taleb; hakeem jabbar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 129-132

This work was conducted during 2009 to 2010 to extracted and purification of Procynidine compound from crap seeds ,leaves and stem from (vitis vinifera L)and the content of Procynidine were done and compare quantitatively of these explants in mother plant . This study include alcohol extraction by using mixture of ethanol ,methanol , D.W and HCL The result revealed that , the superiority of Procynidine in seeds content than the content in leaves and stem of vitis vinifera and the increase the content of these compound in the steam were grown in the end period of vegetative growth .

Biological and Serological Properties of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV)

Fadhal A. Al-Fadhal

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 139-145

This work was conducted to determine the serological and biological characteristics of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in plastic houses. Samples from tomato plants showing symptoms of leaf curling and rolling, plant stunting and deformation accompanied with leaf edge and interveinal chlorosis suspected to be of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus were collected. Test plants were inoculated with the virus by whiteflies Bemisia tabaci. Results showed that the host range of the virus was restricted to some host plants. The virus caused leaf rolling, vein clearing, and new leaves deformation of Datura stramonium and Solanum nigrum after 20 days of inoculation. Chenopodium amaranticolor, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Nicotiana glutinosa were responded to virus infection without obvious symptoms on the infected plants. The virus was detected in these plants by serological-ELISA test. These hosts may be representing source of virus transmitted to tomato plants by Bemisia tabaci. It has been found that the virus transmitted efficiently from infected to healthy plants by Bemisia tabaci. One insect found to transmit the virus by 25%, attained to 100% with 10 insect/plant. The minimum access period on infected plant to acquire the virus was found to be 30 min, and similar period for viruliferous Bemisia tabaci on healthy plant for inoculation. The incubation period of the virus in the insect was found to be 24 hrs. The increasing of access period of insect on both infected and healthy plants caused increasing in the efficacy of virus transmission.

Study of Urease Enzyme Activity in vivo and in vitro on Tropan Alkaloids production in Datura metel linn and Datura innoxia mill

kareem taleb

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 158-165

An experiment was conducted to determine the activity of Urease enzyme in vivo and in vitro in Leaves , Seeds of Datura metel linn and Datura innoxia mill and in leaves callus induced from leaves by using MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BA at concentrations of 1 mg/L each and to compare activity of Urease between callus, leaves and seeds in mother plant. Result revealed that there were an decrease the activity of Urease enzyme in callus induced from leaves compare with the activity of these enzymes in leaves and seeds in parent plant .Result also showed the superiority of Datura innoxia on Datura metel in leaves and seeds Urease enzyme activity . The data illustrated that the superiority of Datura metel leaves callus on leaves callus of Datura innoxia Urease enzyme activity .Also, the alkaloids content were decrease with an increase in enzyme activity in leaves and seeds of tow type of Datura , and the data showed that increase of alkaloids content in callus induced from leaves and illustrated that the superiority of Datura innoxia on Datura metel in alkaloids content .

Quantity and Quality study for alkaloids and saponines in leafs and fruits of some Cultivar of Ziziphus plant

ahmad aabais; abo thar hatem

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 166-181

A study was carried out to investigate some chemical components of leaves and fruits of four jujube ( Sidr ) cultivars, ( Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.cultivar.Zaito , Ziziphus manuritiana Lam. Cultivar. Tuffahi , Ziziphus spina-christi(L.)Wild,.cultivar. Bambawi , Ziziphus spina-christi ( L. )Wild,.cultivar Bathri ). The active components (alkaloids and saponin) were extracted by soxhlet apparatus and using the organic solvent ethanol, butanol, methanol, or chloroform and were separated by using Thin Layer Chromatograph ( T.L.C ) technique , Cold , hot water extracts were prepared for leaves and fruits .The chemical test for the alcoholic extracts were positive for all components ( alkaloids and saponin ) for all parts of cultivars studied , while the test for aqueous extracts showed different responses .The results showed that the saponin gave the highest component in leaves and fruits of studied cultivars and they were (8.25 , 24.1 gram per 100 gram) and the lowest value was the alkaloid ( 3.55 , 3.6 gram per 100 gram) dry matter respectively . The number of separated compounds by T.L.C methods in relation to alkaloid varied from two to five compounds with different cultivar and the results showed that the number of alkaloids and saponin compound which separated from the leaves of Zaitoni and Tuffahi cultivars were equal, it could be these cultivar belong to the same species. The results showed that the number of saponin compounds were higher in the leaves of all cultivars, comparing with the fruits, this support traditional uses of leaves and other pharmacological uses .

Possibility Environmental Effects Of Industrial Water Draining Of Kufa Leather Factory On Aquatic Plants

Sadiq Kadhum Lafta Alzurfi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 182-201

This investigation was designated to study all the possible effects of the industrial polluted waters drained by from Kufa leather factory on the limnology features and aquatic plants ecology of south kufa stream.
Water samples were collected during four month for water and aquatic plants are( January ,February , June , July ) 2010 from four sites; The first site is polluted with Industrial water of Kufa Leather factory , The second site is (100)m away from the first site ,the third site is (500)m away from the second site and The fourth site was taken 1 km before the second site for comparison (control) with the other sites.
The results showed that water temperature ranged between (11.3 to 30.5) Co . E.C values were recorded (1.4 to 8.4 ms/cm ). pH levels were on the alkaline site of neutrality (7.3 to 8.3 ).Dissolved oxygen concentrations were ranging from (5.6 to 11.2 mg.l-1 ).
Total alkalinity was exclusively dominated by HCO3, however ,it was ranging between (92 to 229.3mg CaCO3/l ). All the studied sites were ranging from moderately hard to very hard waters(1140-6400) mg.l-1 . Major nutrients showed different modes. However, they were fluctuated according to the date of sampling. The following ranges were calculated NO3 (0.5to 20.17 mg/l), NO2 (0.4 to 13.9 mg/l), PO4 (4.1 to 22.1 g/l) .
This study determined means of dissolved Cr and Fe (0.8-3.5), (0.7-2.5) mg/l respectively.
Recorder in this study (20) species and high number record from species in the second site (14) species where record the first and four sites (10) species and recorder the Echhornia crassipes first appearance in kufa river .

A study of some physical and chemical properties of Al - Shanafiya Spring water in al-Diwaniya governorate- Iraq

Haider Mashkoor Hussein

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 202-208

This search was included done to defind the quality study of the Spring water in Al- Shanafiya region of al- diwaniya governorate for five months starting with January to May.20 samples were taken with 4 sample as average from Abaed, Dahej, and Shwared Spring water.
The result shows that pH was normal rate and its uses for drinking and irrigation according to all samples and months its reach (7.2-7.5) and note the customary limit for drinking water should be (6.5-7.5). throw from results that Turbidity in Abaed eye water keep on within the maximum limit too in all month except may month reach to 16.5 NTU the customary limit drinking water should be 5 NTU , but in Dahej t eye water was optimal to reach(0.05-3) NTU, and readings exceeds the normal limits for the pure drinking water as it's appears in Shwared eye water to reach (5.9- 40) NTU .results show that the eyes water were more the Salinity especially in Abaed water and the Electrical Conductivity classified as highest (2250) µs/cm. The results showed that a high levels of hardness except Dahej eye water. Alkalinity readings for the eye water keep on within the maximum limit too although of simple increasing levels and it supposed to be note more than( 200) mg/l .Sulfate readings increased in all samples and for all months reach to 1790–1430)) mg/l, so the chloride readings confirm that its the accepted boundary, note the customary limit should be not more than (600) mg/l. but BOD readings confirm that its the accepted limit.

Molecular detection of some virulence gene associated with pathogenicity of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Dr. Lamees Abdul-Razzak A. Lateef; Dr. Maysa Salih Mahd; Dr. Mohammed Sabri Abdul-Razzaq

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 209-216

In this study, only seven isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were subjected for detection espB, cesT/eae, and CNF1 genes in their genome.It was seen that esp gene was not found in all isolates understudy, whereas cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1(cnf1) was detected in four isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Moreover, three isolates were shown to possess cesT/eae gene in their genome. The presence of such genes will provide the bacteria to invade and evade the host immune system and also will interfere with wound healing as a result of cnf1 production.

Antimicrobial Activity of Different Types of Vine gar

Dr.Nagham .Mahmood.Aljamali

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 217-219

In this search ,the antimicrobial activity of vinegar of date, apple, grape and garlic were evaluted against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus.aureus) and gram negative bactria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) comparing with amoxyline .The results indicated that the vinegar of four plants had greatest antimicrobial activity comparing with amoxyline as antibiotic.

Host response of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum to reinfection with larval stage of Hymenolepis nana

Jasim Hameed Taher

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 220-225

Adult beetles, Tribolium confusum, were exposed to gravid proglottides of worms, Hymenolepis nana obtained from an already infected mice. Fourteen days after initial infection the beetles were infected as before. Four days later they were dissected before the cysticercoids of the second infection were fully developed. The results revealed that the beetles can be infected more than once, and cysticercoids can live through the life of the beetles, there is no effective host resistance associated with a number of infections, nor is there effective interference with cysticercoids development.

Evaluation of Anti-Rubella IgG Antibody among Pregnant and Childbearing Women in Babylon Province –Iraq

Ibrahim Kareem KHalil; Nazar Shiyaa Mohammed; Abdrazzaq Mohammed Hammod

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 226-233

Background: In countries where the rate of susceptible women to rubella infection is higher than 10%, preconception or prenatal screening is important to reduce the burden of the disease.
Objectives: Determination of anti-rubella IgG seropositivity and susceptibility rates among pregnant and childbearing women in Alhela/ Babylon province.
Subjects and methods: A total of 184 women were enrolled in the present study which was conducted in al-Hella/Babylon province during the period from 1st May/2010 to 15th September/ 2011. Ninety eight pregnant women were chosen from those attending the primary health care centers in Al-Hela. They include 46 (46.9%) who had previous abortions with a mean age 27.2 ± 5.3 years, and 52 (53.1%) without previous abortion with mean age 23.7±5.1 years. Additionally, 86 non-pregnant childbearing women were enrolled as a control group. Of those, 39 (45.3%) had previous abortion with mean age 33.5 ± 7.8 years. Certain demographic factors were collected by personal interview. Anti-rubella IgG specific antibody were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 13 computer assisted program. P value of < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The results revealed that the IgG seropositivity among pregnant women without previous abortion, and those with previous abortion was 96.1% and 76% respectively, with a statistically significant difference (P= 0.04). The seropositivity among non-pregnant women without previous abortion, and those with previous abortion was 85.1% and 100% respectively, with statistically insignificant difference (P=0.11). The overall susceptibility rate for rubella infection was 10.7%. There was insignificant effect of age, educational levels, residency, presence of pregnancy, and history of previous abortion on the seropositivity rate of IgG specific anti-rubella antibody.
Conclusion: Evaluation of the susceptibility of women in reproductive age to rubella infection is essential to set a strategy for prevention of congenital rubella syndrome

Ghrelin level is associated with other Biochemical parameters in obese diabetic patients.

Dr.Hussein Kadhem Al-Hakeim; Montathar Muhammed Ali

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 234-245

Aims; When T2DM associated with obesity they form a very harmful combination that exacerbates the consequences of each other leading to various disorders. The present study aims to assess the ghrelin hormone level in obese diabetic patients and to find out a possible relationship between ghrelin level with different parameters including lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR) parameters calculated from Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S), and HOMA beta cells function (HOMA2-%B).
Methods; Sixty obese T2DM patients with were participated in the study. Lipid profile parameters and blood sugar were measured spectrophotometrically. Ghrelin and insulin measurements were carried out using ELISA technique. HbA1c were measured by ion-exchange chromatography. Insulin resistance parameters were calculated using HOMA2-Calculator software
Results; The results showed that obese diabetic patients have a poor glycemic control and more than half of obese diabetic patients were insulin resistant (IR) according to (HOMA2-IR≥3). Typical dyslipidemia are present in obese diabetic patients indicating higher risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mean ghrelin level is low in diabetic obese patients and non-IR patients have moderately higher ghrelin level than IR patients. Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-%B) indicators are lower in diabetic patients than control group. In obese diabetic patients, ghrelin level is negatively correlated with BMI, cholesterol, HbA1c, atherogenic ratios, and HOMA2-%S. Ghrelin level is positively correlated with HDL-C and HOMA2-IR.
Conclusions: Low ghrelin level is associated with poor diabetes control and bad prognosis parameters in obese diabetic patients.

In vitro the effect of intestinal normal flora on some pathogenic bacteria .

Dr.abbass shaker; Ali adel; Leena abd Al-Redha

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 246-250

The effect of two types of intestinal bacterial normal floral (E.coli and klebsiella) were tested against 50 bacterial isolates collected from different infection of patients and hospital setting ,using inverted disk technique and wells on nutrient agar, the result revealed that the normal flora were affected on 30 bacterial isolates from total 50 isolates .The effect of normal flora were appear on 8 isolates from burns and wounds,5 isolates from ear infections, 9 isolates from gastrointestinal infections (diarrhea), 8 isolates from hospitals delivery rooms E.coli affect on 2 isolate for each of klebsiella and pseudomonas isolated from gastrointestinal infections (diarrhea). In contrast, klebsiella was affect on 9 isolates of pseudomonas aerogenosa , 6 isolates of klebsiella and 3,3,2,2,1 isolates of staphylococcus aereus , serratia ,Acinetobacter ,Enterobacter ,E.coli, respectively, isolated from ear infections ,delivery rooms ,gastrointestinal infections, burns and wounds.

Light microscopy study of lingual papillae in rabbits ( oryctolagus cuniculus )

Methaq Abdul Razaq A-Alshemkhi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 251-255

Histologically the dorsal surface of rabbit tongue was Coverd by stratified squamous epithelium , from lingual epithelium progect me chanical papillae which represented by filiform papillae was similar to threads like and distributed on the entire dorsal surface of the tongue , and gustatory papillae were included , fungi – form like cone – shape or musbroow like , located at apex and dorso – lateral surface of tongue , contain few taste – buds in their walls while the circumrallate papillae wererounded in shapes and surrounded by trenches and their walls with numerous taste buds . the foliate papillae similar to ridges that separated by groove . the foliate papillae more developed in the rabbits tongue when compared with other mammalian tongue . the core of the tongue consist of skeletal muscle bundles , interlaced in many direction ( longitudinal , oblique , vertical and transverse )

Evaluation of Citrobacter freundii isolated in Najaf governorate as an enterotoxin producer

Salman Azez Al-Jubori; Azhar Ammran AL-Thahab; Dhia Shanan Al-Hissnawy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 256-262

This study has been included 422 patients (202 male and 220 female), of which 282 stool samples and 140 urine samples were collected from children under six years of ages and 200 hospital environmental samples as well as 50 apparent healthy as control. Samples collected from three hospitals in Al-Najaf city (Al-Sadr Teaching, Al-Hakeem, and Al-Zahra Maternity and Children) during a period extended from July to October 2010. Only 11 isolates of (Citrobacter freundii) with percent 2.60% were isolated from all clinical samples, 8 isolates isolated from stool samples with percent 2.83% and 3 from urine samples with percent 2.14%, whereas no bacteria isolated from both control and hospital environmental samples. The Suckling Mice Assay (SMA) was applied to the 11 isolates of C. freundii, only 2 gave positive results. While Rabbit ligated ileal loop assay RIL, only 4 of the bacterial isolates gave a positive results.

The Efficiency of Insecticides Against Sandflies with Epidemiology of Lieshmaniasis in Basrah, Iraq

Mufeed A. Habeeb

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 263-271

The study was carried out with determined the status of insecticides against animal agent vector of Leishmania parasite causing leishmaniasis and epidemiology of this disease in Basrah.The impact of indoor spray with four insecticides against sandflies in selected formland finding that mortality percent 55.6% , 13.8% after 30 minute and 100% after 24 hour and 79.1% after 72 hour for Lambdacyhalothin and Diazinon respectively, so the status of neurotoxic Lambdacyhalothrin most efficiency than other insecticides tested.The status of VL was investigated from 2008 through 2009 to provide an epidemiologic characterization of the disease in Basrah show a rural community in the north part with a higher level 88.28% especially in Qurna town with 44.43% than other arts, the disease appear in total individual in first to second seasons more than the last ones, the age percent of VL analysis for a total parts finding that 1-4 years most positive with 53.6% than >5 years with 8.24% and in term of the male were more frequently affected than female.

THE EFFECT OF SMOKING ON HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC PREGNANCY(Type 1)

Adil Ibadi Fulful; Ahmad Aleiwi Hussein; Ahmed Abdul AL-jabbar jaloob

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 272-277

Tobaccos smoking products have aheavy impact on the public health of developed countries as well as non- developed by being a main etiologic factor for induction of cardiovascular disease and tobacco-related cancer . The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of tobacco smoking on the measurement of the humoral immune response in 30 pregnant woman with (Type 1) diabetic group in contrast with 30 non smoking pregnant women group and 30 normal women . All studies group have (matched) age and working life.Measurement suggested that diabetic smoker had decrease level of IgG and IgM in their sera it was found that normal individual had mean IgA,IgG, IgM level 1.77mg/ml,8.3 mg/ml and 0.63 mg/ml respectively while non-smoker women suffering from type 1 diabetes had mean level of 2.44 mg/ml,9.94 mg/ml and 1.02 mg/ml .However, the mean level of IgA,IgG and IgM in diabetic smoker sera was determined to be 2.3 mg/ml,7.04 and 0,28mg/ml,respectively. T The obtained result suggest that toxic smoke component were immunosuppressant and may well play apart in the complex immuno-pathogenesis intraction.The increased risk of smoking in insulin dependent diabetic pregnant women during pregnancy is a further reasons to encourage pregnant women to exclude tobacco smoking.

Immunological effects of Flutamide and cyproterone acetate used two Anti-prostate cancer in Rats

Shaima; H.J; Ala; J.H; J.A; Hussain

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 283-292

This present study was performed to examine the effects of two drugs of anticancer of prostate (flutamide & cyproterone acetate) on some immunological in albino male rats. The animals were divided into two groups, first treatment groups gives orally flutamide at 25 and 15 mg/kg/day and two group gives orally cyproterone acetate at 10 and 5 mg/kg/day, and control divided into two groups,first group gives normal saline and two group gives corn oil and all groups gives orally for 28 days.stady immunological parameters including the conceneration IgG, IgM ,IgA, γ-golbulin, IL-4, IL10 and measuring phagocytic activity also measuring total protein. Furtheremore, The effects of these drugs have been also tested on some blood components including; WBC, differenatial WBCs in treatments and control groups (normal saline & corn oil) of rats .
The flutamide (25,15 mg/kg) and cyproterone acetate (10,5 mg/kg) produced significant decreases in total protein except WBC count which show significantly increases, but both drugs above don't effect in, IgA, IgM, IL-10 and phacocytic activity, on the other hand Flu (25 mg/kg) only produced siginificantly increase in level of IL-4 and siginificantly decrease in IgG and globulin-γ concentration, furtheremore, CPA (10 mg/kg) cause only siginificantly increase in concentration of IgG and neutrophils and siginificantly decrease in lymphocytes . The results of this study refer that the two drugs show significant change in blood components intreated rats compared with control groups, high dose of Flu showed siginificant change in immunological parameters.

Synthesis of homoserine lactone from Aspartic acid and induction of quorum sensing by E. coli isolates

Lamees Abdul-Razzak Abdul-Lateef; Mohammad Sabri Abdul-Razzak; Sawsan Hasan Kadhum

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 293-298

Homoserine L-lactone was synthesized by E. coli through using aspartic acid which was added to the culture media at a final concentration 1%. Homoserine lactone production was checked at different intervals of incubation (after 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 hr.) where 0.01% of KCN is added to show the time of HSL appearance in the bacterial growth. It was found that the best interval for accumulation of homoserine lactone was after 4 hours. of incubation in which the homoserine lactone reached at optimal level. When one drop of culture supernatant was added to fresh growth of E. coli on slide, aggregation or quorum sensing was seen as indicator of HSL production.

Dissemination of TEM and SHV Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases inClinical Isolates ofEscherichia coli

Ali M. Almohana; Adnan Kreem Al-Salamy; Zuhair S. Al-Sehlawi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 299-306

Purpose: To examine the dissemination of blaTEM and blaSHV genes in Escherichia coli isolate from patients with significant bacteriuria.
Methods: During the study period, antibiotic susceptibility patterns were studied in a total of 38 isolates of E. coli. The isolates also examined to determining the presence of blaTEM and blaSHV genes by PCR assay. Conjugation experiments were performed by using rifampicin resistance E. coli MM294 as the recipient.
Results: All isolates were resistance to at least five of the antibiotics tested (multidrug resistance, MDR) and sensitive to imipenem. PCR assay revealed that 57.1% and 14.3% of the isolates carried blaTEM and blaSHV genes, respectively, additionally 9.5% of the isolates harbored both genes. Conjugation experiments and PCR trials confirmed that the blaTEM positive E. coli isolates tested were able to transfer this gene in transconjugants.
Conclusions: There was a high occurrence of MDR isolates in patients with significant bacteriuria and theblaTEM gene was common among isolates.

Studying the hypoglycemic and the antibacterial activity of various plant extract of Urtica dioica

Rafid M. A. Hassan AL; wasfi; Hanaa Jaafer jabaar AL; Kaabee; AL-Fatlawy; Dergham; Majeed; Hameed

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 307-317

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of methanolic and water (hot,cold) extracts of urtica dioica plant in blood glucose level of aloxan induced diabetic laboratory rats . And also to study the antibacterial activity of these extracts against different groups of gram positive and negative bacterial species . the present study showed the presence of significant p≤ 0.05hypoglycemic activity of blood glucose in the group treated with the hot methanolic extract compared with control and (hot ,cold) water extracts groups.The results showed significant p≤ 0.05 antibacterial activity in the hot methanolic extract against most the gram positive and negative bacterial species compared with standard antibiotics and (hot ,cold) water extracts . The result confirm that hot methanolic extract of urtica dioica has more activity than the water extracts.