Testing effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibition growth of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

The study concluded the discovery and investigation of the ability of bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus in dampening the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.We also used different concentration from Lactobacillus acidophilus )LBA( in the contrastive study . The activity increased to reach its maximum at the concentration off 100 mg / ml which has the ability to dampen of L. monocytogenes isolate by diameters dampening which ranged from (24 - 23) mm. The value of MIC and MBC was specified . The amount of MIC was 25 mg / ml and the amount of MBC 50 mg / ml , the LD50 was also specified and its percentage was 1000 mg / ml . So the use of this CFS is safe from a hygienic point of view .

The Role of Cabergoline in Creating Micronucleus and Sperm Headed Abnormality in Male Albino Mouse

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 8-15

The present study was designed to stand on genetic effects important of cabergoline by some laboratory investigations in male albino mice include the micronucleus test and sperm headed abnormality assay. The animals were treated with two oral doses of drug (0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg) given by gavaga for 4 weeks and twice weekly.
The result appeared a slight increase in ratio of micronucleus to (0.02) ml/kg in the first dose (0.003 ml/kg) compare with the negative control (0.01 ml/kg), but this increase was not significantly, also the ratio of micronucleus was increase in (0.01 ml/kg ) to (0.03 ml/ kg) and there is no significantly compare with the negative control.
On the other hand the results showed a slight increase in ratio of sperm headed abnormality to (3.7 and 3.9 ml/kg) when receiving (0.003 and 0.01 ml/kg) respectively compare with negative control (3.6 ml/kg) but this increase was not significantly.

Production of Polymyxin B Antibiotic from Bacillus sp.

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 16-26

Polymyxin antibiotic was isolated as an active wide spectrum as an oleic withes powder from Bacillus sp.The physiochemical properties of the extracted antibiotic were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC), Infar Red Spectroscopy in addition to of qualification and color reactions.The extracted antibiotic was identified by using Gas Chromatographic technique to determine its chemical compound such as main groups of fatty acids and amino acids. The results show that the extracted antibiotic was Polymyxin B.The biological activity of the extracted antibiotic against the reference strains Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC , 27859 and Klebsiella sp , was determined and the results showed that extracted Polymyxin B has the ability to inhibit the growth all types of reference stains in both primary and secondary screening .

Study of Urease Enzyme Activity in vivo and in vitro on Tropan Alkaloids production in Datura metel linn and Datura innoxia mill

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 26-33

An experiment was conducted to determine the activity of Urease enzyme in vivo and in vitro in Leaves , Seeds of Datura metel linn and Datura innoxia mill and in leaves callus induced from leaves by using MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BA at concentrations of 1 mg/L each and to compare activity of Urease between callus, leaves and seeds in mother plant. Result revealed that there were an decrease the activity of Urease enzyme in callus induced from leaves compare with the activity of these enzymes in leaves and seeds in parent plant .Result also showed the superiority of Datura innoxia on Datura metel in leaves and seeds Urease enzyme activity . The data illustrated that the superiority of Datura metel leaves callus on leaves callus of Datura innoxia Urease enzyme activity .Also, the alkaloids content were decrease with an increase in enzyme activity in leaves and seeds of tow type of Datura , and the data showed that increase of alkaloids content in callus induced from leaves and illustrated that the superiority of Datura innoxia on Datura metel in alkaloids content .

Study of using the bacteria Bacillus circulanFrom infect with A.terreus In protect of fruit apple

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 34-41

The results showed the ability of A.terreus fungi are soft spots with a pale yellow color turned to brown on the part of the surface of the fruit, and the spots varied greatly in size and was at first superficial, then spread rapidly within the tissue with the expansion in diameter until it has covered half the size of the fruit. The results indicate that this biopreperation of bacteria Bacillus circulans that agood effective in inhibiting the growth of fungus Aspergillus terreus on culther media either way methods of mixing with culture media and spotting.the Results of storage experiment on unaffected apple fruits when contaminated with both fungi separately and treated with biopreperation of B. circulans bacteria showed under laboratory conditions for two weeks from injury pathogenic fungi with lower infection rate of 61.8% in the fruits of others treatment lotion and bio-contaminated vaccine pathogenic fungus (treatment control) to 11% in the fruits of contaminated vaccine pathogenic fungus lotion and treatment with biopreperation.

Effect of some Environmental Factors on the Toxicity of Pesticide "Lambda-Cyhlothrin" in Fresh Water Snail Lymnaea euricularia L.

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 42-55

This Study deal with the effect of changing in some ecological proprieties on the Toxicity of Pesticide (lambda-cyhlothrin) by used the snail Lymnaea euricularia as test organism.The snail under study collected from Hilla River near Al-Hindia barrage ,the samples transport by special bags ,these organisms are accumulated by putting in aquarium
20 L contained a same position river water in laboratory degree 25c , aeration of 8h. and lighting as natural light(12 h light and 12 h dark),then they left for 5 days to accumulation , at this time the aquatic plant(Ceratophylum demersum) was ther,s food which was brought from Hilla River .After accumulation dead or tired snails was removed while active and live snails were stilled for using in toxicity tests.Three concentration of insecticide were user (0.1,0.5 and 1) mg/l as three replicate for each concentration, 10 accumulated snails were putting in each replicate.
The experiment has taken 168 h. for each concentration wich during mortality calculated and LT50,LT90,the toxicity of pesticide has increased by concentration and exposure time increasing. Some of ecological factors was studies as salinity an p H by man experiments contained salinity percentage increasing in their water( 0.56) o% to( 1) o%, that the reason of pesticide toxicity decrease in all concentration, LT50 andLT90 were calculated.
p H was changed for alkalinity to be 9 and for acidity to be 5 ,p H increasing to alkalinity was reduced toxicity in all concentration while it was increased under acidity conditions.
LT50, LT90 and mortality were calculated in all concentrations under alkalinity and acidity conditions respectively .

The role of metronidazole in prevention of dry socket formation

Mahdi Yaakub; Kezar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 73-76

A study was done on (150) patients attending oral surgery clinics at college of dentistry of Babylon university, the aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of using metronidazole as prophylactic measures in prevention of dry socket formation. We found that there was a little role of this drug when it is used before dental extraction.

The protective effect of probiotics ( Lactobacillus acidophilus against urinary tract infections caused by Proteus mirabilis in vitro

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 77-87

Experiment studied the protective effect of probiotics bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus against urinary tract infections in laboratory mice caused by Proteus mirabilis, by the preparation of heat-killed bacteriaLactobacillusacidophilus. 13 animals were divided into three groups, the first group contained five animals not treated, the second group contained five animals treated with the Lactobacillus acidophilus, in addition to the control group, which contained tow animals . The second group was injected over a five-day by (o.5) ml of stuck cells of heat killed L.acidophilus before challenge with 0.2 ml of the Proteus mirabilis (108/cells per ml). The results showed that there was no evolution of infection with the Proteus mirabilis in the second group of animals, while injury has evolved significantly in the animals of first group non-treated with probiotic bacteria through not observing of the growth of the Proteus mirabilis on the culture media for blood and tissue samples taken from animals treated. A differential count of white blood cells results showed, an increase in the number of cells, particularly neutrophils in all the results examined. On the other hand study showed the results of the tissue sections of animals treated and non-treated for histological changes significantly for the untreated animals with the probiotics in compare with animals were simple changes.

Histological study of gastrointestinal tract in Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides and Rock dove Columba livia .

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 99-108

Three parts of gastrointestinal tract (esophagus,proventriculus and small intestine) in Squacco heron(carnivorous)and Rock dove (granivorous) were selected to recognize the histolgical structure of each part and compared according to kind of feeding in both birds. The esophageal glands were found in mucosa of squacco heron whereas they were found in submucosa of rock dove. The histological structure of proventriculus was similar in both birds. The villi in squacco heron were longer and the goblet cells were more numerous than in rock dove . It was concluded that the modification in histological structure of gastrointestinal tract may occur in relation with the difference in the kind of feeding in each bird.

Effect of nitrogen fertilization and number of branches on vegetative, flowering growth and volatile oil yield of Carnation Dianthus caryophyllus L.

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 126-136

An experiments was conducted in the lathhouse of the Hort. Dep., Agric. Coll., Basrah Univ. in order to investigate the effect of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer 0 , 60 or 120 Kg N/Donum and three treatments of the branches number by leaving plants without pruning , leaving two branches on the main stem without limitation the growth laterals branches on them and leaving four branches on the main stem and two lateral branches on each of them and their interactions on vegetative, flowering growth and volatile oil yield of Carnation Dianthus caryophyllus L.var “Chabaud”L. for the period from 15, Oct , 2004 to 15, June , 2006 . Results were as following :
The addition of the nitrogen fertilizer to the plants at the level of 120 Kg N/ Don. caused a significant increase in the most characteristics of the vegetative and flowering growth as well as volatile oil yield , oil per cent , production of volatile oil per Donum and in addition to increase the density, the specific gravity in the first season . While the addition of nitrogen fertilizer at the levels of 60 or 120 Kg N/Don. caused a significant increase in stem diameter and the fresh weight of flower increased in the second season without any significant effect between the two levels . As well as the carbohydrate content of the leaves increased in the two high levels of nitrogen fertilizer at the first season and at the level 60 Kg N. Don-1 in the second season. When four branches were on the plants this led to a significant increase in a plant height , diameter of stem, volatile oil yield and oil percent for both seasons. Whereas left two branches or four on the plants caused a significant increase in the leaves content from chlorophyll in second season. While the number of the flowers and flowers yield increased when were left two branches on the plants in the both seasons.
The interaction among the plants that left with two branches and fertilized at 60 Kg N/ Don. caused a significant increase in a plant height, diameter of stem for both seasons, carbohydrates content of the leaves in the second season only. While the interaction among the plants were left with four branches and fertilized at level 120 Kg N/ Don. increased leaves content from chlorophyll for second season, whereas the volatile aromatic oil yield and oil percentage for both seasons. The interaction among plants left without pruning and fertilized with 120 Kg N/ Don. caused a significant increase in leafy area in both season, flower yield. While the interaction had no significant effect in physical characteristics of volatile aromatic oil. The interaction among the plants left with two branches and fertilized with 120 Kg N/ Don .caused a significant increase flower yield.

Test the effect of some Herbecides bush (Chevaler , Tobik and Lintour) on the growth of , Bacillus circulans

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 137-141

The present study endeavors to test three doses , full dose (F.D.) and half dose (H.D.) and Quarter dose (Q.D.) of the herbicides Chevaler , Tobik and Lintour, in the growth of bacterium B.circulans. According to the study of testing of Achtbaralnspp percentage of bacteria B.c. with fungicide resistance, biological compatibility, the highest rate of equality was seen with the fungus (T.h.) which was reached up to( 90.54%), while the lowest rate was seen with the fungus (P.o .)which was accounted for (75% ) .Either through the study of extension of bacterial growth on (PDA) poisoned (F.D.) of the herbecide bush under study, the highest stretch of bacterial growth was with the herbicide Lintour as a 1 cm, but less extension was with the herbicide Tobik (0.3 cm), while the top along with the herbicide Lintour (H.D.) which was (0.9 cm) either less along with the herbicide Tobik was (0.27 cm) compared with the treatment of the control that the growth rate of the 0.9 cm, either at the treatment of bacterium (Q.D. ), the highest rate of herbicide Nmokan with Lintour (0.9 cm), while the lower stretch with Tobik was (0.1 cm) compared with control treatment, which accounted for (1.31 cm).

Descriptive and Histological study to uterus of ewe and compared with uterus of she camel

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 142-148

The Descriptive study showed that the horns of uterus in ewes centuries united lengthwise spiral and accurate, while in the camel relatively straight and muscular, and site that the uterus in the sheep to be in the abdominal cavity, while in the camel , part of the body of the uterus with the cervix is located in the pelvic cavity.
It was observed that the uterus in ewes divided into two parts by longitudinal groove extends along the body of the uterus, while in the camel's uterus is the compartment of one and not divided into two parts.
It was also noted that the lining of the uterus contain projections arranged in circular rows called caruncles in the inner lining of the uterus of ewes, while those caruncles not observed in the inner lining of the uterus of the camel.
The histological study appeared the histological components of the uterus in sheep similar to the histological layers in she camel (mucosa-Submucosa layer, muscular layer and the external layer of the uterus(serosa).

Response of Anise) Pimpinella anisum L. ( Cultivated in Barah to Sowing Dates and Spraying with Zinc on Growth and Production

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 149-157

An experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009/2010 in Lath house belong to Hort. and Landscape Design Dept., Coll. of Agric., Basrah Univ. to evaluate the effect of sowing dates and spraying with zinc on growth and yield of Anise) Pimpinella anisum L. (var. Local. The experiment was focussed on the effect of two factors i.e. two sowing dates ( 3 , 17/10) and spraying with ZnSO4. 7H2O at 0, 75 and 150 mg/l.). Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replicates, R. L. s. D. Test was used at probability of 5%. Results showed that early sowing date gave significant increases in plant height, number of branches, leaf number, the number of umbels, total florets, the number of fruits per plant and plant yield. Spraying with Zn gave significant increases in plant height, number of branches, leaf number per plant, the number of umbels, total florets, the number of fruits per plant and plant yield. The interaction of the two factors of study had significant effects on all studied parameters.

Histological study of Corpus Luteum in the Ovaries of the native she-camels

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 161-169

The present study conducted on the ovaries of the native she-camels. Histollically, changes occurred in the graffian follicular wall, represented by extension of folds from follicle wall toword the lumen, shrinkage and hemorrhage appearance, this structure at beginning of formation which termed corpus hemorrhagicum due to present of blood in the destruction follicular antrum, also changes occur on the thecal internal cell, due blood supply lead to large size of the granulose cells to form large and small luteal cells, also luteinization includes hyperatropy and increasing in the cells number, the large luteal cells appear polygonal with spherical and pale-colour nuclei science the small luteal cells occupied small part of luteinizing tissue and locate at the periphery and septtules of the growing corpus luteum, these cells were loaded with fat droplets appear as Vacoules. The corpus luteum was enclosed by collagenous and reticular fibers as well as fibroblasts. This histological components converted to scar tissue represented by the remenants of the connective tissue elements, this structure mentioned corpus albicans. According to the present study, the corpus luteum in the ovaries of the native she-camels were classified into: firstly, corpus luteum periodicum: formed in the fertilization failure case and continue in the maturation phase, then suffering from degeneration later on. Secondly, corpus albicans the corpus luteum periodicum converted to scar tissue and these corpora disappeared later on. Thirdly, corpus luteum of pregnancy formed after sucessed of the fertilization and continue during pregnancy period, and degenerated in the late months of pregnancy

Influence of salicylic acid and phenylalanine on callus induction and tropane alkaloids production on Atropa belladonna In vitro

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 170-185

An experiment was conducted in the tissue culture lab . College of Agriculture –University of Baghdad during 2009 - 2010 .Callus induction was achieved by culturing shoot tip of Atropa belladonna seedling on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg / l of 2,4-D and 0.4 mg / l of BA .Salicylic acid (SA) concentrations that added to MS medium were (0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ) mg / l and phenylalanine concentrations that added to MS medium were (10 , 20 , 30 , 40) mg / l . MS medium without SA gave the highest values (753.9 , 65.53) mg of both fresh and dry weights of callus, respectively .However values of both parameters were reduced with increasing SA concentration up to 3 mg/l (268.7 ,17.25) mg, respectively .Results indicated that MS medium supplemented with 20 mg/ l of phenylalanine gave the highest values of callus fresh and dry weights ( 584.2 , 48.84) mg, respectively .MS medium supplemented with (0 , 20) mg / l of SA and phenylalanine gave the highest values (938.2 ,83.25)mg of both fresh and dry weights of callus respectively.MS medium supplemented with {(2,40) ,(1,30) ,(1,20),(2,30)}mg /l of SA and phenylalanine, respectively gave the highest values (108.25 ,380.18,392.04 ,390.94) µg /g dry weight from callus of Atropine , Scopolamine , Tropine ,7-OH-Hyoscyamine, respectively.

The effectiveness of plant extracts of Datura innoxia L. fruits on some biological aspects of Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 186-194

Water and alcoholic plant extracts of Datura innoxia L. fruits were tested in respect of some biological aspects of Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium as(mortality, productivity and repellency ).The results revealed that, the cold water extract was more effective than the boiled water extract in rates mortality of five larval instars(50.3 ,46.9 , 41.2 , 39.2 , 30.9 %) at 100% concentration. Also , in use the alcoholic extracts , the rates mortality of five larval instars were(90.0 , 70.1, 61.2, 41.2 , 35.2 %) respectively at 30 mg/ml. female productivity decreased to 46.3 eggfemale at 20 mg/ml when previous treated with alcoholic extracts compared with 67.3 eggfemale in control treatment. Percentage of repellent(PR) of alcoholic extracts and water extracts to adults of T.granarium were 87.7 , 60 and 60 % respectively..

Immunological aspects on Asthmatic Patients

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 195-199

The study was designe to assess some immunological aspects of asthma patients by detected the total and differential count of leucocyte , immunoglobulin titer and specific activity of adenosine deaminase ADA . Therty sex samples of patients were collected and 24 sample of healthy as control group .
The result was revealed that the WBCs count increased in patients group compared with control group , and the neutrophils and basophile were increased significantly while, lymphocyte and monocyte was decreased.
The concentration of IgE increased significantly but IgG was decreased
The specific activity of ADA was highly significant (P≤ 0.01) increased compared with control group.

Effect of arithritis on some blood biochemical criteria in women in Najaf governorate

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 200-212

The present study was concerned with investigation of the effect arthritis in some biochemical criterions in women. The study was carried out in Sadr Teaching Hospital in Najaf City Center of arthritis and physical therapy within period from 1 7 2009 to 1 1 2010 .(130) samplers of women blood were tested after being divided into two groups: The first group consisted of (40) women who were suffering from rheumatoid arthritis compared with (40) women who were suffering from general Arthritis. Results of all required tests were obtained from the two groups compared with that results obtained from control group which included (50) healthy volunteers Study of biochemical criterions in blood serum demonstrated that there was significant increase(P <0.05) in the concentration of total cholesterol ,Triglyceride and Low Density Lipoprotein, as well as liver enzymes which include Alanine Transaminase, AspartateTransaminase and Alkaline Phosphatase in the two groups when compared with the control group, and the criterions above increase with the progress of illness duration and the height is above in the period from 16 years and above ,at least in the period from 1-5 years. Meanwhile, there were significant decreased (P <0.05) in the level of High Density Lipoprotein in the two groups when compared with the control group, but there was no significant change shown in the level of High Density Lipoprotein in the progress of illness duration .

Immunity of Outer Membrane Protein of Campylobacter jejuni in Rabbits.

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 213-220

Two groups of rabbits were used, first group was with outer membrane protein (test group) and second with normal saline (control group). Specific antibodies titer were higher in test group than control group in both local and systemic and the ratio of local to systemic antibodies was (10:1)Phagocytosis was studied by using nitrobluetetrazolium dye reduction (NBT) on test group were (0.82,0.84,0.72) comparison with control was (0.7) in systemic respectively.Cell meiated immunity was evaluated by using (LIF). (LIF) was significant in test group and non significant in control group both local and systemic immunity.
Delayed type hypersensitivity test was used in vivo and was significant in control group than test group with (OMP) antigens.It can conclude that (OMP) of C.jejuni induce immune response humeral and cellular local and systemic.

Isolation of secondary bacterial infections in pulmonary tuberculosis patients

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 221-227

هدفت الدراسة الى عزل الإصابات البكتيرية ا لثانوية من الحالات الجديدة وحالات الفشل بالعلاج التي ترافق الاشخاص المصابين بالتدرن الرئوي .وعمل فحص الحساسية للحالات التي يظهر لديهم اصابات ثانوية مستخدمين مجموعة من المضادات ومن بينها التي تستخدم في معالجة التدرن الرئوي.اظهرت الدراسة ان نسبة 72% لديهم اصابات ثانوية (العدد 36) و 28% (العدد 14) لم يظهر لديهم اصابات من مجموع 50 عينة تمفحصها .كذلك اظهرت الدراسة ان نسبة 75% من الحالات الجديدة كانت لديهم اصابات ثانوية بينما كانت نسبة الفشل بالعلاج للذين ظهر لديهم اصابات ثانوية 25% .كانت نسبة الذكور للاصابات الثانوية 58.3% (العدد 21) والاناث 40.7 % (العدد 15) .كذلك تبين من خلال الدراسة ظهور اربعة انواع من البكتريا Streptococcus pneumonia (55.6%), (العدد 20), Streptococcus pyogens (22.2%) (العدد 8) , Staphylococcus aureus و Klebsiela pneumonia (11.1%)
اظهرت نتائج فحص الحساسية لبعض المضادات ان نسبة البكتريا المقاومة للعلاج عالية جدا.

Production of bacteriocins from infant Lactobacillus spp. active against Listeria monocytogenes

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 228-235

Three Lactobacillus isolates, isolated from breast-feed infants feces belong to the species: L.fermentum (Lf), L. acidophilus (La), and L. reuteri(Lr) . The three isolates are able to produce bacteriocins with antagonistic activity against indicator bacteria Listeria monocytogenes in agar – well diffusion technique. The cell-free extracts (supernatants) fractionated with 60% ammonium sulfate, and some of physicochemical properties were studied. They indicated acidic pH stability in a range of pHs 2- 6, and showed heat stability in a range of temperature 50 – 100 °C for 10 minutes. Enzymes sensitivity revealed inhibition of antilisterial activity after treatment with proteolysis enzymes, pepsin and trypsin, while lysozyme has no activity. Bacteriocins displayed complete antagonistic maintenance during storage at- 18°C for a month.

Effect of fish oil andOmega-3 in reducing some sterility criteria induced by lead acetate in female's albino rats Rattus rattus

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 236-253

A result shows a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the weight of ovary after treated rats by concentration (6) mg/kg of lead acetate. Whereas, the interaction between the same female treated by lead acetate and different concentrations (100,200 and 400) mg/rat of fish oil and omega-3 were led to a significant increase (p< 0.05) in the weight of ovary at all concentrations also shows a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the weight of uterus after treated rats by lead acetate, whereas, interaction between the same female treated with lead acetate and different concentrations were led to significant increase (p< 0.05) for fish oil and omega-3 as comparing with lead acetate group. Results are proven that significant decrease in the level of (FSH), (LH) and estrogen level after orally administrations by (6 mg/kg) lead acetate, whereas, the interaction with different concentrations (100,200 and 400) mg/rat were led to significant increase (p< 0.05) in the hormonal level of (FSH), (LH) and estrogen levels for fish oil and omega-3 as comparing with lead acetate group.
Results are shown a significant increase (p< 0.05) in a numbers of primary, secondary and graffian follicles after interaction between females treated with lead acetate and different concentrations (100,200,400) mg/ rat. The study show a significant increase (p<0.05) in a diameters of ovaries after interaction between (6 mg/kg) lead acetate concentrations and concentrations (200, 400) mg / rat only for fish oil and omega-3.
Results shows a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the numbers of embryos, percentage on pregnancy and normal embryos after administered orally of lead acetate (6) mg/kg for (30) respectively, whereas, the interaction between different concentrations of fish oil and omega-3 with lead acetate group were led to significant increase (p<0.05) in the numbers of embryos, percentage of pregnancy and normal embryos at concentrations (200,400) mg/rat.

Influence of the different doses of sodium fluoride on the rabbit exocrine pancreas .Histo – pathological study

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 254-259

The present study was carried out on the (18) male rabbits, to identify the effect of different concentration of sodium fluoride on histological structure of rabbits exocrine pancreas. The experimental animals were randomly divided into three groups, control group, the first treated group admimenstreted(200)ppm sodium fluoride daily with drinking water for six week period. The second treated group adimenstered (300) ppm sodium daily in drinking water with same experiment period, each group was included six male rabbits The moderate histo-pathological alterations was occurred in the rabbits exocrine pancreas, represent by degenerative changes in the pyramidal cells of acini and lost of zymogenic granules in some acinar cells while the sever histo-pathological changes in the histological structure units of the rabbits exocrine pancreas in the second treated group involved sever degeneration,necrosis and a trophy from other hand enlargement of interstitial and intralobular ducts.

Ionic alterations in fresh water fish, Tilapia zillii, acutely exposed to aluminum in acidic fresh water

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 260-264

The effects of aluminum on the ability of Tilapia zillii to regulate their electrolyte states in plasma were investigated in acidic water (pH 5.5). Two levels of concentrations (25 and 50 µg/L) of aluminum chloride were added to water for 48 and 96 hours respectively. The aim of this study was to understand the effects of the interaction between aluminum and low pH on the ionic balance. Plasma sodium and chloride of fish exposed to acidic water and aluminum were significantly different from the control groups after 48 and 96 hours of exposure. These results indicate that sublethal levels of aluminum can alter the ionic balance of fishes living in acidified fresh waters.
Key words: Aluminum; acidity; ion regulation; tilapia.

Antileishmanial activity of alcoholic extract of (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds against ulceration of cutaneous leishmaniasis in vivo

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 265-270

The effect of alcoholic extract from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds was studied on the ulcerative lesions of cutaenous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with L. major promastigotes.The Leishmania major strain was isolated from Iraqi patient suffered from cutaneous leishmaniasis, the patient lives in rural village belong to Basrah marshland. The alcoholic extract of this plant was administrated by intralesion injection.The alcoholic extract from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds showed good results. The plant extract decrease the growth and development the cutaneous ulcers and its size of treated mice when compared to the control mice which were worsening and more increased in ulcers size.

Effect of Hibiscus sabdraffira and tea extract on cellular immunity in lab animals

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 270-273

In this study , the effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces ,black and green tea leaves were studied in lab animals . Cellular immunity which represented by the phagocytes as in the reduction of NBT dye and skin DHT test. Hibiscus extract was showed higher significant NBT reduction in P ≥.05 compare with tea extract and control where's there three plants were stimulated cellular immunity in skin DTH test demonstrated by signs of reaction such as redness ,thickness ,necrotic ,indurations and erythma after 24-72 hr.

Prevalence of Salmonella enteritides in water birds Carcases from farmer's houses in Basrah Marshes

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 274-277

The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enteritides contamination of water birds carcasses in slughter shopes in Basrah city , 120 samples were collected from meat and Bacteriological examination was done . the results showed that the rate of contamination of meat was (10% ).
Introduction

Effect of fish oil and unsaturated fatty acidOmega-3 on fertility of female's albino rats Rattus rattus

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 278-290

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally supplementing fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids during the proestrous on fertility of female's rats.) White female rats Rattus rattus were used in the study, each rat Weighed about (200-250) gr., and aged about (12-14) week. Results indicates that LD50 of fish oil and omega- 3 after orally administered of females rats by different concentrations (100,200,.400,600,800,1000 and 1200) mg/rats are (750)mg/rats and (950)mg/rats, respectively. Results shows a significant increase (p< 0.05) in the weight of the ovary for both concentrations (200,400) mg/ rats for rats treated by fish oil and omega- 3 Respectively, comparing with control group , the results shown a significant increase ( p< 0.05 ) in the weight of uterus for both concentrations (200,400) mg/rats for fish oil and omega-3 treated rats respectively comparing with control group, the concentrations (400) mg/kg was higher effective than (100, 200) mg / kg respectively on the of ovarian and uterus weight.
Results are indicates that a significant increase(p<0.05) in the level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) for all concentration (100 .200 .400 )mg/kg , whereas they are no significant differences in the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) for all concentrations as comparing with control group. Results appear a significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of estrogen hormone for both concentrations (200.400) mg/kg as comparing with control group. The statistical analysis are shown a significant increase (p<0.05) of the level of (FSH) and estrogen hormones in omega-3 group as comparing with fish oil group. The histological study shown a significant increase (p<0.05) in the number of primary and secondary follicles for fish oil and omega-3 at all concentration (100, 200, 400) mg/kg for omega-3 respectively as comparing with control groups
They are shown no significant differences (p<0.05) at all concentrations of fish oil and omega-3 in Graffian follicles numbers. A result shows a significant increase of in the thickness of endometrium (p< 0.05) at all concentrations for fish oil and omega-3 respectively as comparing with control groups.
Fertility test show a significant increase (p< 0.05) in the numbers of embryos at concentrations (200,400) mg/kg for omega-3 and fish oil respectively as comparing with control group .There are no significant differences in the percentage of pregnancy and normal embryos between fish oil and omega-3 as comparing with control groups.

Lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphotase levels in gastropod Lymnaea Radix cor (Annandale and Prashad, 1919 ) exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 291-296

The gastropod Lymnaea Radix cor was exposed to sub lethal concentrations ( 22.75 and 45.5 µg/L ) of endosulfan for 8 days. Important biomarkers were assayed in digestive glands during exposure intervals ( 2, 4 and 8 days ). Increasing in lipid peroxidation, markers including Malondialdehyde (MDA), was observed after 2 days of exposure with 22.75 µg/L endosulfan then the increasing became lower in 4th day and nonsignificant differences between 4th and 8th days of exposure were noticed. while the increase in lipid peroxidation was greater after 2 days of exposure with 45.5 µg/L endosulfan than that at 22.75 µg/L. The results showed decrease in Alkaline phosphatase enzyme in second day of exposure with 22.75 µg/L endosulfan whereas more decreasing in ALP were observed after 2 day of exposure with 45.5 µg/L endosulfan.
key words: Lipid peroxidation, alkaline phosphotase, Lymnaea Radix cor, endosulfan

Antifungal efficiency of Miswak & Cardamom Extract on Some Virulence Factors of Candida albicans as Oral Pathogen

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 297-303

In vitro, inhibitory effects of Miswak & Cardamom extracts on some virulence factors belong to C.albicans as oral pathogen was investigated in this study.
Results showed that both plants extract displayed a variable degree of antifungal activity against tested microorganisms but Cardamom extract showed more strongly effect than Miswak extract in which the inhibitory values was 2 mm as inhibitory zone, 15% adherent rate, 10% germination rate at The concentration 100% Cardamom extract compared with 1 mm as inhibitory zone, 35% adherent rate, 29% germination rate when treated with Miswak extract at The same concentration . The above results recommended that Miswak & Cardamom will be a great help for use as oral hygiene tool & fungicidal therapeutically agent for oral infections caused by Candida albicans.