Evaluation of hexane extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca Leaves against some biological aspects of mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say.(Diptera:Culicidae)

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

This study was evaluate conducted to the hexane extract effect of Schanginia aegyptiaca leaves on some biological aspects of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito. The mortalities, development period ,productivity and hatchability were chosen as criteria for bioassay. The results revealed that egg mortality was 18.7% at 2 mg/ml,while the 1st,2nd,3rd and 4th larval instars were 75.9% ,62.3% , 48.3% and 46.7% respectively at the same concentration.Pupal mortality was 25.5% at the same concentration too. Accumulative mortality of immature stages was 100% at 1mgml while the developmental period was extended to 17.5 days in comparison with 12.4 days of control. Treated female productivity was169.2 eggs
aft comparative with 200.7 eggs
aft of control Hatchability reduced to 91.6% comparative with 97.7% of control.

Invistigation some of virulence factors of Moraxella catarralis isolated from respiratory tact infections

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 7-10

344 samples were collectd from respiratory tract infections, from March 2006 to January 2007 .Thebacterial isolates where identified basd on colony morphology, biochemical reactions and confirmed using API-NH identification system. 60 isolates(17.4%) identified as a Moraxella catarrhalis, isolated from sputum ,ear, nose, bronchial and tonsillitis swabs in (12.5 ,30 ,27.6 ,11.7 and 6.7)% respectively . 31 (16.3%) isolates were recovered from males samples versus 29 (18.8%) isolates from females. Some virulence factors of Moraxella catarrhalis were studied ,the results revealed that 58 (96.7%) isolates have adhesion factors to humans epithelial cells. 22 (36.7%) isolates have ability to produced protease enzyme . Versus , 54 (90%) isolates produced lipase . however no isolates have ability to produced heamolysin. As well as no isolates produced capsule

Seroprevalance of Toxoplasma gondii among women aged ( 17 – 54 ) in Abe – Garag region at Babylon city

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 11-15

The current study aimed to estimate the rate of T. gondii infection among women aged ( 17 – 54 ) in Abe – Garag region at Babylon city . Serum sample of ( 136 ) women attending to hospital found in the region , were tested for anti-toxoplasma IgG by using ( LAT ) , serological results involved :-
* A comparison in rate of infection among months ( 1/5/2008 ) to ( 30/1/2009 ) the+ve was recorded for ( 50 ) samples from ( 136 ) samples and the highest sero prevalences were recorded in May and November ( 60 % , 53,3 % respectively )
* A comparison in rate of infection among deferent aged where the highest sero prevalences were recorded in ( 46 – 55 ) years old and ( 36 – 45 ) years old ( 60 % , 50% respectively )
* A comparison in rate of infection among deferent blood group where the highest sero prevalences were recorded with ( A- ) it's ( 100 % )
* A comparison in rate of infection among with state ( dead fetus or plytitoid ova ) , the deferent age and blood group where the highest sero prevalences with dead fetus were recorded with aged ( 46 – 55 ) years old while the highest sero prevalences with plytitoid ova were recorded with aged ( 15 – 25 ) years old , where the highest sero prevalences with dead fetus were recorded with ( B- , AB - , O – ) with ( 100 % ) for all while the highest sero prevalences with plytitoid ova were recorded with ( A+ , O+ ) were ( 66,6 % , 100 % respectively ) .

Effect of Ethyl Acetate and Ethyl alcohol extracts ofPhoenix dactylifera L Pollen on the fertility of males albino mice

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 16-22

This study was Performed in the animal Laboratory and animal house in the College of Science / University of Kufa for Period (1/8/2004 to 1/2/2005 to know the effect of Ethyl acetate and Ethyl alcohol extracts the Pollen of
Phoenix dactylifera L. plant on the Fertility of male Albino mice . used swiss albino mice (Balb/c). and the males were devided to three goups. Administrated by different concentration (50 , 100 , 200)mg/kg from an Ethyl alcohol and Ethyl acetate extract intra Peritonially for (45) dayes as one dose every 48 hours and were compared with fourth group (control group) . The treatment with the two extracts of Pollen of Phoenix dactylifera in the Normal Males Led to : A significant increase in the total body weight for All Extract’s concentration with two kinds . And a significant increase were happened in weight of reproductive organs (testis and epidydimus) for all Extract Concentrations and to both kinds . and the (200)
mg/kg concentration was more Significant than the other concentration .A significant increase in the total Sperms count , and significant decrease in the Percentage of dead and abnormal Sperms .Asignificont increases in the number of (Spermatogonia , Spermatocytes, Spermatids, Spermatozoa).

Evaluate of efficiency of some biological and chemical Treatments in control on the larvae stages of Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Evrts

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 30-37

This study aims to possibility of create means to protect the grains stores from infestation with Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium through test for the efficiency of some biological treatments ( inoculum's of fungus Beauveria bassiana and inoculum's of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ) and chemical treatments ( Metacol chemicide , Gentabride chemicide and Methan chemicide ).
The study results showed the inoculum's of fungus B. bassiana was more effective than the inoculum's of bacterium B. thuringiensis from where mortality rate . Its caused 34.08 % compare with 27.98 % in the inoculum's of bacterium B. thuringiensis after 5 days of the treatment. As well as the study revealed the Metacol chemicide is superiority on Gentabride and Methan .which caused mortality rate reached to 34.34 % , compare with ( 25.51 and 32.63 )% in two chemicides (Gentabride and Methan ) respectively.
The result of laboratory experiments showed the biological treatment concentration 10 ml L , caused the best mortality rate on the larvae stages of Khapra beetle T. granarium was 47.89% compare with 1.72 % in control treatment.. as well as the another concentrations showed good ability on the average of mortalities of the Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium .
The larvae stages of Khapra beetle revealed different sensitive for biological and chemical treatments , and the fifth instar larvae showed a little mortality rate reached to 22 % for biological treatments and 4.26 % for chemical treatments .

. The action of propolis as immunodulatory in rabbits

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 38-42

This study aimed to separate and purify the propolis extract and its imunodulatores effect on the immune response in rabbits.
The protein concentration of propolis was recorded as 18.60 mg /ml, the study has indicated the immunodulating effect of propolis on humoral and cellular immune response .The immunodulator include the determination of useful dosage to achieve the immunodulator.
The rabbit was treated with concentration of 10 mg / ml which to lead to an encouraging result and it had been included to study the immunodulator effect for both responses .It has positive effect on humoral immunodulator effect by studying specific titer to purified protoplasmic antigen of S typhi , while the judge on cellular immunodulator accurse by leukocyte inhibition factor and skin test intermediate delay hypersensitivity .
The propolis extract had stimulatory effect for humoral and cellular immune response
.

Microbiological comparative study of pathogenic bacteria that causes urinary tract infection

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 49-52

100 samples were collected from hospitalized patients that infected with urinary tract infection during 30 days, the finding showed that the 80 case were positive versus 20 case were negative .Also the female were more exposure to infection that male. The localization of pathogenic bacteria in urinary tract were varity depend on the type of bacteria.
E. coli were high frequency among Staph aureus , Pseudomonas auroginosa and Klibsella. The biochemical test of bacteria were done according to cultural and morphological characters .In addition to, the result noted that the bacteria were variety to sensitive to some antibiotics ,although ,the Chloromphenicol was the best drug for all types of pathogenic bacteria.

The effect of Mercuric Chloride on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters on male rats.

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 58-67

This study was conducted in the labs of the college of science- kufa University from 25/10/2004 to 8/2/2005, It included the use of Rattus rattus(males). They used (96 )rats divided into four groups, each groups was given the concentration (1,2,3)mg/kg for tow , three and foure respectively. The study aimed at knowing the concentration and the period of mercury chloride in some physiological blood parameters and stological changes ,the results included the following :
1-It has been found throught the study that there was a(p<0.05) significant decrease in the total hemoglobin concentration , the packed cell volume and the total numbers of the white blood cells..
2- The lymphocyte cells numbers decreased significantly (p<0.05) when compared with the control group for all the concentration ,.
3-There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the cholesterol concentration , high and density lipoprotins and total blood sugar after injection mercury chloride.
Increasing of the period of injection has a significant influence on the increase of the previously mentioned parameters .
4- The current study revealed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the activity of livers enzymes (GPT) and (GOT) for all concentration and all period of injection compared with the control group .

Effect of some harmala seed extracts Pegaum harmala on some biological aspects for the khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera :Dermestidae)

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 68-76

Studies on the use of chloroform and hexan extracts of harmala seeds Pegaum harmala against the khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium in wheat grains revealed that there was significant toxic effect of all concentrations on immature stages and adults . Chloroform extract was more effective than hexan extract in all treatments .The rates of cumulative mortality at 10mg/ml of Chloroform extract reach 100% and at 25mg/ml of hexan extract reach 100% comparing with 26.5% at control treatments .Two extracts prevented oviposition completely at 10 mg/ml and the productivity of female was negative decreased relation with the increase of concentration , the developmental period was positive increased relation with the increase of concentration of extracts. The study results showed there was capable of use harmala seed extracts without effect on germination of grains ,thus could be promising an environmentally safe and clear mode for control of the khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium

The effect of copper oxide on reproductive system of white male swiss mice Mus musculus

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 77-82

This study was applied to investigate the effect of copper oxide on spermatogenesis in reproductive system of albino male Swiss mice . Thirty male mice where divided into four groups . in which of them were treated with different concentration of copper oxide (2 , 4 , 8 )mg/kg for 45 day respectively . The forth groups was the control which treated with normal saline solution . The result showed :-
1.Significant decrease (P<0.05) in number of Spermatogonia were (43,32 ,25) for treated groups (2 ,4 ,8 mg/kg) as compared with the control group(normal saline).
2. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in number of Spermatocyte were (85,64,45) for treated groups (2 ,4 ,8 mg/kg) as compared with the control group(normal saline).
3. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in number of Spermatid were (110,88 ,60) for treated groups (2 ,4 ,8 mg/kg) as compared with the control group(normal saline).
4.Significant decrease (P<0.05) in number of Spermatozoa were (90,72 ,53) for treated groups (2 ,4 ,8 mg/kg) as compared with the control group(normal saline).

protozoa infected diarrial patients in AL-Abbasyia area /AL- Najaf governorate

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 89-91

Atotal of (239 ) patient ; (154 male and 85 femal) . The apercentage ( 63.5%) were infected with intestinal protozoa; and the infection with Entemobea histolytica and Giradia lameblia was (67.6% ;58.7% )respectilly in AL-Abasia /AL-Najaf governorate during 1/7 to 30/9/ 2008 in laboratory of AL-Abasia hospital ;The infection in male is more than femal by apercentage (66.7%; 57.6% )respectilly. This study explain there were differences regarding monthly distribution of parasitic agents.

Laboratory study of the effect of some Nutrient elements in some physiological criteria of the fungus Helminthosporium oryzae) Breed de Haan ).

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 92-99

The Helminthosporium oryzae fungus was . isolated from the infected Leaves and steams of rice which its infection with Brown disease collected from the effect of the Abbasia fields / Najaf Reigon in the date 25/9/2008 . The expermint conducted to study Nutrient elements ( Ca , Mn , Fe) on biological activity of the fungus Helminthosporium oryzae . The study clear of that Ca promoted the fungus growth , specially in low conscntrations to 8.3 cm comparied with 7 cm in the control treatment . Also the low conceutration increases the sporalization of the fungs which reached to 38370000 spore /ml compaired withe 33180000 spore / ml . in control , dry weitght Biomass increased to reach 6.86 gm compaired with 6.13 gm in control . The effects of Other elements were differented comparied with control , In other hand the high conscentration of the elements inhibited the radial growth of the fungus to 2.7 ,4.0 and 4.6 cm respectively compaired with 7.0 , 7.2 and 7.5 cm in control , and the dry weight of biomass and sporalization of the fungus decreased also .

Study about the swimmer's Itch disease (AL-Sharaa) in AL Najaf –AL Ashraf

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 100-107

Collection of 2oo snails belonging to species lymnae auricuiaria .from AL Mushkhab and AL-Abasia locality in AL- Najaf AL –Ashraf
The study included 300 person from the study areas of 150 Person for each from Augest 2008 to Jenuory 2009.in the biology department / collage education of girls This study was based on a questionnaire paper which included the following criteria (sex , age , itch time , activities , parts of the body infection and water depth )Examination of snails revealed that infected with avian schistosome cercariae only 3 % and the percentage of the infected population was 38.3 % and 41.6 % for males and 33.3 % for females . also 43.4% for children and 17.3 % for adult.The results also revealed that 69.5 % from the infected persons the symptoms apparent after dry the body and of 89.5% from them the itch remains after more than three days and the hands and legs are more infected 65.2 % . Also the infection increased according to the increase of the temperature 78.2 % and decrease of water depth .

CHEMICHAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE SPEISES PAPULUS EUPHRATICA oliv. AND SALIX ACMOPHYLLA Bioss. (SALICACEAE) WILLOW FAMILY IN IRAQ

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 108-114

The Family of Salicaceae represented by two Genus are Papulus and Salix in Iraq .
The work include some chemical characters and comparative between its species " P. euphratica" and" S. acmophylla" due to the chemical important in make drake as Asperine and wild distribution in deferent invironmetof Iraq .
The Flavonoid compounds study by TLCand system of (BAW).Were classified according to Rƒ.( Relative flow). And color of compound under Uv .light and the taxonomy importace is assessed also between two Genus by present the three compounds in leaves extract and two compounds in bark extract of species of P. euphratica, and tow compounds in leaves extract , five compounds in bark extract of species S. acmophylla.only one compound "no:1" is present in leaf extract P. euphratica and bark extract of S. acmophylla .
Also used some reagents for alkaloid ,flavonoid ,comarin and fenolics compounds and appeared different response for this reagent between species of this genus that appeare this species rich in alkaloid ,flavonoid ,comarin and fenolics compounds and pore in alkaloid compounds of bark extract of species P. euphratica.

Study for Proteins and Enzymes System in Some Genotype inters to Iraq and compare with Wheat Triticum aestivum L

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 115-122

The research consist study of four hybrid from wheat Triticum aestivum L inter from CIMMYT, Study the genotype stability throw enzyme system Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT) ,Esterase (EST), Acid Phosphates (ACP), for leaves so the total proteins for seed.
The result of studied total proteins and enzymes system for genotype construct show no significant different between, ACP, GOT and EST, and total proteins on the point of view number of enzymes and proteins bands location and appearance on Acryl amide gel , also the study show that those total protein and enzyme at different ship within each genotype composition which indicate the purity of these genotype composition ,where show clear differentiation between genotype composition at all system's studied so as total protein ,that mean differentiation in genotype composition from each to other , which indicate the ability support the genotype bases to get different ion genotype volume which is useful in plant breeding program's at the future , either hybridization and or selection .

Isolation and Identification of some Fungal groups in three sites drainage of Rice fields in Al-najaf Province

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 123-127

Isolation and Identification of Fungal Species from three sites of Rice fields drainage in Al-najaf Province has been studied, the number of Isolated Species were (43) belonging to(24 Genera) ,the number of Anamorphic Fungi was appeared in high frequency with total number(38 Species) belonging to (21 Genera)with ratio (88.4%)from total number of Isolated Species, next group was Ascomycetes (3 species)of one genus Cheatomium spp. (6.9%),the predominant Fungal Genus was Aspergillus spp. Which is found in (27 Isolated) (29.4%) and followed by genus Pencillium spp.(13 Isolated)(14.1%)

The antibacterial activity of natural honey on local isolates of diarrhea-causing bacteria

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 128-131

This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial effects of different types of natural honey on some diarrhea-causing bacteria these are Escherichia coli, and Shigella flexneri was investigated. The natural honey samples were effective in inhibiting the growth of investigated bacteria, with inhibition zone ranging from 24 to 32 mm, Shigella flexneri was the most effected bacteria, the differences among the test bacteria against three types honey were significant P< 0.05 for thyme honey benefit.
The antimicrobial effects of natural honey samples were compared with the antimicrobial effects of some antibiotics, the isolated bacteria were resistant to most of antibiotics except ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime. The inhibition zone of ciprofloxacin treated bacteria was 30 mm, and of chloramphenicol treated bacteria was 25 mm, in comparison with inhibition zone (24-32mm) of honey samples, the effect of honey was similar to that of antibiotics effect. Therefore the natural honey showed high efficiency on bacterial growth inhibition, these results encourage the interest to prepare pharmacological formula from the natural honey

Effect of Biological Formula of Bacillus circulans in control of the fungi Exserohilum rostratum and Fusarium solani contaminated grain, rice

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 132-138

Experience has shown the ability to test of fungi pathogenicity the Superiority of fungus F.solani to reduce the rates of germination rates of seeds rice in the presence of fungus the germination rates is 47.34% compared to the comparative treatment of the amount of 91% and increased damping-off to 48.26%. The results of the experiment also demonstrated the efficiency of biological product to provide good protection for the grain stored by pathogenic fungi E.rostratum, and F. solani . Was used for the concentration of Biological Formula in determining the effectiveness of each of them focus 25 g / kg grain product provided complete protection from infection of the grain by fungi .
.
138

Effect of various rates of sulfur on phosphorous availability and corn plant growth

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 139-144

A trial was conducted in the experimental field of the Technical Institute of Musayb (50 Km south of Baghdad) to find out the effect of sulfur (of Mishrak field) on some soil characteristics, phosphorous availability and growth of corn plant . Sulfur fertilizer (92-96 % Sulfur) was applied in the rates (0,50,250,500,Kg/D) Phosphate, Nitrogen and potassium were applied in the rates of(P2O5- 50 Kg/D) , (N- 500 Kg/D) and (K2O- 20 Kg/D) respectively . Seeds of Abu-Ghuraib (1) field corn were planted and plants received all the agricultural practices throughout the experiment course . After harvest yield was recorded .Also phosphorous and some changes of soil chemical properties were recorded . Results showed that a reduction in soil pH, increase in EC values and argumentation of available phosphorous were obtained . On the other hand an increase of dry matter and plant content of phosphorous was observed associated with the application of sulfur . therefore it be concluded that (500 Kg/D) of sulfur would causes an increase of dry matter and availability of phosphorous in the soil and its content in the plant.

Hematological test in patients with intestinal parasites in Al-Hashimiah village

Adday; Lika

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 145-148

An epidemiological study was conducted during the period from May 2008 to January 2009 . this study was carried to reveal the epidemicity of intestinal parasite in human and it's effects on some blood physiological aspects in Babylon province . the results show the following :-
The percentage of male and female infected with intestinal parasite during study period reached about 50% and the percentage of infection increased significantly with age progress (P<0.05) .
There are many intestinal parasites were detected such as (14.2%) Giardia lamblia, (10.1%) Ascaris lumbricode ,(18.4%) Entameoba histolytica , (12.3%) Entameoba coli ,(18.4%) Ancylostoma duodenale , (20.4%) Enterobius vermicularis and (6.1%) Hymenolepis nana ,
The total count of R.B.C. and Hb of infected human were decreased significantly which is reached 3.9500 ×10‘cellmm³ and 8.6mg100ml , respectively compared with those non infected which was 5.62×10 cellmm³ and 11.57mg100ml (P<0.05
Significant increase were noticed in total count and differential counts of W.B.C. of infected human which is reached i0.6 cellmm³ as compared with uninfected human which is reached 6.31 cell

The Bacterial Pollution for the steps for Hilla river in many sites after and before two stations of purification and sterilization of drinking water

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 149-156

The aim of this study was to explaine about level of The Bacterial Pollution for Hilla river in many sites after and before two stations of purification and sterilization of drinking waterThe study deal with the isolation and identifications some sepsis of The Bacterial Pollution of drinking water .
The study explain increase the total count of the aerial bacteria which arrive to (1750)Cell/ml In fourth site south of the Hilla city while (1120) Cell/ml in second site west Hilla city . Also the total count of the colon bacteria witch arrive to 990 Cell/ml in fourth site . the increase total count of the colon bacteria in sixth site .with the sterilization water and also the isolation and identifications some sepsis of The Bacterial Pollution of drinking water as BACILLUS which the level arrive to 58%, E.COLI to 29 and other bacteria as Klebsilla , Streptococcus.

Effect Study of Water and Alkaloid crude extracts from leave Dodonaea viscosa linn(Sapinadacae)on some biological aspects of Mizus persicae (Homoptara:aphidae)

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 157-162

The present study revealed that water and Alkaloid crude extracts from leave plant Dodonaea viscosa the effect on some biological aspects of Mizus persicae. Mortality rate of various nymph stages were also increased with the increasing extract concentration . Mortality rate of the nymph stages (first , second , therd , fourth and adult) in boiling water was (5.6, 5.3 , 4.8 , 0 ,0 ,%) respectively in the control treatment compared with (82.3,, 78.2, 75.1, 72.4 , 63.6 %) respectively in 20 mg /ml concentration.While mortality rate of the nymph stages (first , second , therd , fourth and adult) in cold water was(68.4 , 66.3 ,63.3 , 59.1 ,52.7 %) respectively in same concentration . mortality rate of the nymph stages (first , second , therd , fourth and adult) in Alkaloid crude extracts (90.90.90.90.90%) respectively in 20 mg /ml concentration compared with control treatment.The period of development of immature stages was (7) days in 5 mg /ml concentration compared to ( 5.6) days in control coefficient , and the reproductivity decreased to (17.3) nymph / female in concentration of 5 mg /ml compared to 62 nymph /femal in control coefficient .

Human hemoglobin denovo synthetic Replenshment

Likaa adaai

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 163-167

From 152 anemic patients , paired venous blood samples collected . one of the samples for each patient was at may 2007 then high protein diet consumption and the other at May 2008 in AL Mamiran /Babylon . The paired samples were assessed by acid haematin haemoglobinometry ''Sahlis Type '' and ''The Hb Pipette '' The test patients were categorized into three categories First are those who attain normal haemoglobin concentration (140/152) post to high protein diet . Second are those who sustained low haemoglobin concentration even after consumption of high protein diet (8/152). While the third are those who worsent i.e. got lowered haemoglobin concentrations (4/152) The first group attributed to denovo haemoglobin synthesis while the second may due reduced anabolic rate or high catabolic rate of haemoglobin The third however ,may got chronic infectious diseases , or suffer from haemorrhagic. blood loss . Ancylostoma dudenele was associated with low Hb value in both male and female subjects .