The Antimicrobial Effect of Commercial Available Local Brand of Toothpastes Against Some Dental Caries Microorganisms

Sura Ihsan Abed Jabuk; Raad Abdulabass Al-harmosh; Nagham Adel Ghani jabuk

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

The present study was designed to choice the best toothpaste , were using every day to reduce proliferation microorganisms in mouth as well as bad smell of mouth because of presenting microorganism in mouth and were found food between teeth . The antimicrobial activity of seven different toothpastes Emoform, Colgate, Signal , Crest , Sanino, Close up & Sensodyne were evaluated on some pathogenic oral microorganisms : Streptococcus mutans, Micrococcus spp., Proteus vulgaris Staphylococcus aureus & Candida albicans. After wash the volunteers teeth with toothpaste, Emoform toothpaste was more effect than another type by killing of all type of bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was performed by using agar well diffusion method demonstrate that the Emoform toothpaste its more effect than another types. the diameter of inhibition zone was (30, 25, 23, 31, 27 and 35 mm) against C. albicans, S.aureu, Str. Mutans ,Micrococcus spp, P. vulgaris , S. epidermidis and B. subtilis respectively. In conclusion the antimicrobial activity of Emoform, Colgate , Crest were better than Sanino, Sansodyne and Close up.

Genetic Diversity Assessment of Some Citrus Species Cultivated in Iraq Based on RAPD Molecular Marker.

Iqbal Harbi Mohammed Al-Zaidi; SalwaJaberAbdulah Al-Awadi; Ali.Saeed.Atiyah.AL-Janabi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

Genotyping of six Citrus accessions was carried out using RAPD marker .The genetic variability among the six Citrus accessions was estimated using six decamer RAPD primers. Five primers generated reproducible and easily storable RAPD profiles with a number of amplified DNA fragments ranging from nine to 12 ,the primer OPA – 17 was negative results . The total number of amplicons detected was 50, including unique bands reached seven polymorphism were 34,this represents a level of polymorphism of 68.33% and an average number of 6.8 polymorphic bands per primer. a maximum numbers of amplicons was amplified with primer OPA-18 reached 12 while the minimum number of fragments was amplified with primers OPA-12 and OPN-16 reached 9 respectively. The highest number of polymorphic bands reached 8 were obtained with primer OPN-16 and OPA-01respectively, while the highest number of monomorphic bands reached 3 was obtained with primer OPA-12 and OPS-147 with percentage reached 33.33% and 30 respectively. RAPD markers detected genetic distance and similarity , a maximum genetic distance value was observed between sour orange (SO) and sweet orange (OR) reached 0.578 with less similarity value reached 42%, a minimum genetic distance value was observed between sweet orange (OR) and mandarin (MA) reached 0.316 with high similarity value reached 69% . The similarity matrices were employed in the cluster analysis to generate a dendrogram using the UPGMA method. The cluster tree analysis showed that the citrus species were broadly divided into two main groups A and B. A group including two species were troyercitronge (TC) and sour orange (SO) with genetic similarity reached 56%. B group was divided into two sub-cluster B1 and B2 with genetic similarity reached 51%. The first sub-cluster (B1) including only citrone(CI) species but the second sub-cluster (B2) divided into two groups( B2A and B2B),the first group (B2A) included sweet orange (OR) and mandarin (MA) with high genetic similarity reached 69%, and second group (B2B) included volkamer lemon (VL) species only.

RFLP-PCR Fingerprinting ITS region of Fabaceae species in Hillah city in Iraq

Huda Jasim Al-Tameme; Hussein J. Hussein; Nidaa Adnan Abu-Serag

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

The aerial parts (fresh leaves) of thirteen species belong to family of Fabaceae were collected from various fields in Hillah city to investigate polymorphism in the ITS region of nrDNA by using polymerase chain reaction processed with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR). Based on the data generated, it was possible to identify all of the species that were placed in three groups that are compatible with the three subfamilies within Fabaceae. So, we can be considered that the RFLP-PCR method is very reliable to identify different species belonging to the same family

Use of universal 18SrDNA gene and CHROMagar Candida medium for the identification of Candida species isolated from denture wearers.

Khulood Abdulkareem Hussein

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

Candida spp. are considered the most important species able to cause oral infections in denture wearers during the past two decades, from 35 swab samples were isolated from denture wearers showed only 12(34.3%) positive culture result on SDA , PCR products test (genotypic methods) to the universal 18SrDNA fungi gene amplified for these positive culture isolated gave bands at the position 260bp when compared with standard molecular DNA ladder. In this investigation, chromogenic agar test (phenotypic methods) products showed 7(58.3%), Pink, mauve colonies were identified as Candida krusei, 3(25%) blue colonies were identified as Candida tropicalis and 2( 16.7%) light green colonies considered as Candida albicans, and showed [C. krusei,
C. tropicalis] were negative to germ tube formation test and C. albicans was positive to germ tube test.

Purification of the Tigris River water using seeds extract of Al-Ruwag tree (Moringa oleifera Lamarck) cultivated in Iraq.

Esam J. Al-Kalifawi

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

This study is the first in Iraq, in which the use of the Al-Ruwag tree seeds that were planted from seeds imported from Sudan and the age of the tree three years, and this is the second season of harvested bods. Al-Ruwag tree is very useful and all parts of the tree have potent medicinal value and seed has coagulant activity to remove the turbidity from water as a natural coagulant instead of chemical coagulant. In the present study preparation of dried seed powder of Al-Ruwag tree in many concentrations and that was treated with raw water. After treatment with raw water by Jar test, samples were analyzed for all the parameters such as pH, turbidity, TSS, and bacterial examination. The results of the present study showed that Al-Ruwag seed has more coagulant activity specific at concentration 10 and 15 percentage, in this concentration the turbidity values and total suspended solid were zero. The results of the present study demonstrated the of Al-Ruwag seeds extract was efficient against bacteria found in raw water. The concentration (1%, 2%, 3% and 5%) of Al-Ruwag seeds extract reduced the number of bacteria in raw water to about (93.75%, 95.5%, 99.37% and 99.68%) respectively. Whereas the concentration (10% and 15%) of Al-Ruwag seeds extract reduced the number of bacteria to 100% .We conclude from the current study that the Al-Ruwag seed is environmentally friendly, non-toxic and a natural coagulant, which is effective against the causes of water-borne diseases.

Using Laser Energy For Controlling Some Stored Product Insects

Jenan Mohammed Ubaid

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

In this study the effect of visible laser 405nm at four exposure times on survival of adults and fourth instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum and Trogoderma granarium as well as the development period of larva to adults were investigated.Results showed that adults of the two pests significantly affected with laser irradiation at all exposure times,there was 100% mortality was observed in adults of T.castaneum at 30 and 40 min respectively compared with control treatment,while 30 and 40 min of laser irradiation caused 70% and 83.3% mortality respectively compared with control treatment in adults of T.granarium. Results also showed that mortality percent of T. castaneum larva was 40%,46.6%,76.6,and 100% at 10,20,30,40 min respectivelly compared with 0% in control treatment,while larva of T. granarium significantly affected with laser irradiation at 20,30,and 40min as mortality percent was46.6%, 53.3%,and 66.6% respectively compared with 0% at control treatment.It has been found that increase in exposure times showed an increase moulting to adults by larva of T. granarium ,the longer period appeared was 22.6 and 23.2 day at 30 and 40 min respectively compared with 17 day in control , there was no adult emergence from the larva of T. castaneum irradiated at all exposure times as pupal recovery was seen but the pupa died and there was no adult emergence. In conclusion the results demonstrate the adverse effects of laser irradiation on the survival of adults and larvae of T.granarium and T. castaneum , the present study suggests the potential for a safe pest-control technique that can easily kill insect pests simply by laser radiating .

Effect of Heat Stress on Peripheral Plasma Concentration Hormones Oestradiole , Progesterone , FSH and LH in Iraqi Buffaloes Bubalus bubalis During Summer and Spring Season

Z.J; AL- Busaid

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

This study Was designed to evaluate the effect of thermal heat on the Peripheral plasma concentration hormones oestradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) and luteinizing hormone ((LH). These hormones were measured by a competive protein binding assay in six Iraqi buffaloes Bubalus bubalis at un prop irate stages of estrus cycle during warm season (March& April) and hot season (July& August). It is interest to note that levels of oestradiole and progesterone in the warm season were significantly higher( p<0.05) than those measured at the hot season, while there is no significant effects of the concentration of FSH during two different season, also our study showed an elevation of the concentration of LH in warm season compared with hot season but the effectiveness were not significant. The present study also showed none significant elevation of FSH concentration during hot season compared with warm season.

Molecular Detection of Methicillin and Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Burn and Wound Infection Patients

Hani H. Jubair; Ali H. Khlebos

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia in most of Hospital and it increased risk of infection, morbidity and mortality especially, when associated vancomycin resistance in same infection. In this study 42 S. aureus were isolated from burn and wound infection patients in Al-Qadisiyah teaching hospital and S. aureus was isolated by selective medium out form 50 swab samples. The PCR assay was used for direct detection of methicillin (mecA) and vancomycin (van) antibiotics resistance gene in 42 S. aureus isolates. The results show 8 isolates (19%) were have mecA gene methicillin resistance and 3 isolates (7.1%) were have van gene vancomycin resistance in all isolates. In conclusion, PCR assay as highly sensitive and specific in detection of methicillin and vancomycin resistance gene, and Vancomycin-resistant can be associated with Methicillin resistance in S. aureus isolated from wound infection.

Preliminary study of dietary interaction between larvae of Tilapia zilii and larvae of Liza abu in East Hammar marsh.

M.T. K. Al-Okailee; F. M. Mutlak; L. F. Lazem

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

Food composition of Tilapia zilii and Liza abu larvae in East Hammar marsh has been studied during January 2014 to December 2014. The diet of these larvae were consist mainly of Cladocera(Daphnia spp), Copepod (including adult and larval stages), Rotifer , Diatom and detritus. Feeding activities was high for T. zilii and L. abu (100%), also Feeding Intensity which was high for L. abu (21.84 point/larvae) comparing with T. zilii (19.76 point/larvae). According to the Index of Relative Importance (IRI), the diet of T. zilii and L. abu larvae dominated by Cladocera(Daphnia spp) (IRI= 25%, 30% ). The highest diet overlap was recorded for detritus 91% being the most consumed item in larvae studied. Total diet overlap among larvae of T. zilii and L. abu was high (88%). Competition for food is possible, direct competition seemed to be avoided to some extent as a result of great food availability in East Hammar marsh which makes it as a suitable spawning, shelter, nursery and feeding site for many fish.

In vitro assessment of L.acidophillius and L.casei binding capacity against aflatoxins B1

Akeel Abd Al-Mjbel; Krkaz Mohammad Thalj; Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei for the binding of aflatoxin B1 in vitro in aqueous solution. We have chosen to focus on those bacteria due to their long history of use as a probiotic, the availability of a bank of strains with documented genetic diversity isolated from various ecological niches, and the availability of genetic tools to examine mechanisms of probiotic activity. The Lactobacillus acidophilus exhibited different degrees of aflatoxin B1 binding, the highest AFB1 binding was L. acidophilus 20079, which bound 89.4% in probiotic condition and 87.14% in prebiotic condition of the available AFB1 (10 ppb) after 4h of incubation time at pH6.0. The L. casei 20011 bound 82.87% in probiotic condition and 81.24% in prebiotic condition after 4 h of incubation time at pH6.0. The incubation time (2 and 4 h) affect the elimination of the toxin as significant differences in the amount of AFB1 removed by L. casei and L. acidophilus were observed.

A new record of Pseudogrillotia spratti Campbell and Beveridge, 1993 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) parasitic in some carangid fishes from Iraqi Marine Waters

Fatimah H. Al-Ataby; Suzan A. Al-Azizz; Khalidah S. Al-Niaeem

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

A total 15 of Pseudogrillotia spratti Campbell and Beveridge, 1993 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) have been found in body cavity of three species of carangid fishes, Carangiodes armatus, C. malabaricus and Megalaspis cordyla which were collected from Iraqi marine waters. The parasite was recorded for the first time in the Iraqi marine waters, and C. armatus, C. malabaricus and M. cordyla are new hosts for this parasite.

Trophic breadth and dietary overlap for ten fish species caught from Shatt Al-Arab River, Fao, southern Iraq

M. M; M. M Taher; Taher; Al-Dubakel; A. Y; Al-Lamy; J. H; J. H Al-Lamy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

A total of 274 fishes of 10 species were caught since July 2010 to March 2011, using coastal seine net from Shatt Al-Arab River at Fao. The importance of food items in the diet of ten species were assessed by index of relative importance. Most fishes depend upon one or two main food items where the all fishes eat 15 food items of which seven were animal items, five of plant origin and three organic and non-organic detritus. Six species were considered as carnivores where animal ratios in their diets are 97.1, 89.1, 86.9, 81.5, 76.8 and 72.6 for Johnius belangerii, J. dussumieri, Thryssa whitheadi, Ilisha compressa, Sparidentex hasta and T. hamiltoni respectively. The Morisita indexes of feeding overlap showed only five significant overlap, three of them between J. dussumieri with I. compressa (0.869), T. whitheadi (0.866) and T. hamiltoni (0.675), while only two significant overlap were recorded between T. whitheadi with I. compressa (0.862) and T. hamiltoni (0.657). Five species were considered as high specialized feeders (P. klunzegeri, J. dussumieri, J. belangeri, T. whithead and I. compressa), four species were considered as low specialized feeders (P. subviridis, A. arabicus, T. hamiltoni and T. Ilisha), and S. hasta considered as generalized feeder.

Detect the level of expression of Cluster Differentiation (CD) marker (CD13 and CD33) in acute myeloid leukamia Iraqi patients

G.M-A.wadai G.M-A.wadai; T.A-A. Hussain T.A-A. Hussain; M.J. Hussain M.J. Hussain

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

The present study shedding light on the expression of Cluster Differentiation (CD) marker (CD13 and CD33) among AML subtypes.The expression of (CD13 and CD33) was investi-gated in (33) biopsy of Iraqi patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) (18 males and 15 females) from the Hematology Clinic department in the teaching hospitals of Baghdad during the period from May 2011 to May 2012 .The tissue sections were analyzed immunohistochemically (IHC) to detection the Expression of CD13 and CD33, Our study showed a high positive immunohistochemical expression of bone marrow tissues for CD13and CD33. The investigation on the percentage of this immunological parameters for patients with AML showed a significant rise (P<0.01) to this parameter levels between groups of patients.

The IHC Expression of IL-13 in Bladder Tumour

Hind M. Mousa; Amna N. Jassem; Munther J. Hussain

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

The study designed to detect IL-13 expression in bladder tumor tissues , and to clarify the relationship between itsꞌ expression and clinicopathological grade of bladder cancer . The expression of IL-13 in tumor cells was investigated in (50) patients with urinary bladder carcinoma (UBC) of different grades (G) and (15 ) patients with urinary bladder diseases benign tumor (UBD) from three Hospitals in Baghdad Province . The tissue sections were analyzed immunohistochemically (IHC) to detection of IL-13 . The results showed a high positive immunohistochemical IL-13 expression of UBC tissues than in UBD tissues (86 % versus 26.7% ; p≤ 0.01) . Also ,the high grade of UBC patients was significantly associated with IHC expression of IL-13 (p≤0.01). We concluded the higher expression of IL-13 in the bladder cancer patients suggests that is involved in progression of tumour.

Effects of Methotrexate and Etanercept on C-Reactive Protein and Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies level In Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Khawla H. Zhair; Rasha Hussain Kuba; Yasser abdulhussain Jafar

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease. The treatment of this disease by taking Etnercept and Methotrexate (MTX) drugs. This study was conducted to detect C-Reactive Protein (C-RP) and Anti- Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies (Anti-CCP Abs) level among 126 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with Etanercept (ETN) and methotrexate (MTX), 94 RA patients treated with MTX, 80 RA patients without treatment and 100 samples as healthy control. Blood samples were collected and the presence of C-RP antibodies was determined by using Latex agglutination test (LAT). Anti-CCP Abs was also estimated in serum of all subjects by using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method too. The seroprevalence of C-RP in RA+ETN+MTX was 57(45.24%), in RA+MTX was 62(65.96%), in untreated RA patients was 53(66.25%) while, it was 5(5%)in healthy group. The mean levels of Anti-CCP Abs in RA+ETN+MTX patients were (18.53± 1.70 pg/ml), in RA+MTX patients was (47.61± 6.24 pg/ml), and in untreated RA patients was (167.98 ± 8.67 pg/ml)while, they were (10.3 pg/ml ± 0.87) in healthy group. The results showed significant difference (P<0.05) for both C-RP prevalence and Anti-CCP Abs serum levels was found between studied subjects.

The Bactericidal Activity of Gamm ,Beta and of Semiconductor Laser Irradiation Effect on Klebsiella pneumoniae (in vitro )

Raad . S. Abd; Khalid H. Mahdi; Nebras R. Mohammed; Hanaa S. sabaa

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

This work evaluated the effect of gamma , beta and Semiconductor laser irradiation on Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from sputum . The experiment included a control and 4 doses of each gamma and beta irradiation ,which ranged(1.317×10-4 -0.320µSv) and (10.573-96.950µSv) respectively.
The total effect of gamma and beta irradiation on K. pneumoniae viability was abrogated at (96.915177 & 63.100 µSv) by 137Cs and 90Sr respectively, the percentage of killing was highly (81%) and (85%) respectively and the viable cells was fewer than control . This work evaluated also the effect of Semiconductor laser on K pneumoniae. The experiment included a control and triplicate of K. pneumoniae exposed to Semiconductor laser in power 5 mW , in Wavelength 650 nm. The effect of Semiconductor laser on the viability of K. pneumoniae was counted and percentage of killing was counted , the number of viable cells of K. pneumoniae was fewer than control (without exposure to this laser) , but percentage of killing was higher than control . Semiconductor laser was efficient to killing K. pneumoniae , and the Gamma and Beta irradiation is efficient to killing K. pneumoniae that cause many infection to human and may be cause death .

Isolation and Molecular study of Human Adenovirus

Fadyia Mahdi Muslim Alameedy

Magazine of Al-Kufa University for Biology, In Press

Human samples of adenovirus were isolated from the period of March, 1st, 2015 to 28th of May 2015 from eye secretions of patients were diagnosed through rapid device test and real time pcr. Positive cases of human adenovirus were sixty nine represent (83.13%). Isolation process of adenovirus was successfully performed on chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture for 4 th passage for suspected samples obtained from (eye swab) as well as isolate from chick embryo [specific pathogen free (SPF)],who were diagnosed . The study groups were divided into three groups with different age and gender. The group of 16-30 years old , the highest percent of infection (55.04%) in comparison with other aged group followed by the group of 31-45 years old (31.88%) ; then, aged 5- 15 years old (13.04%). The males groups represented the highest number of infection with adenovirus in comparison with females groups represented by 44 males (63.76%).